Desktop systems are add-ons hardware boards or software codec to normal PCs and laptops, transforming them into videoconferencing devices. 323 standard. Solutions such as Adobe Connect and Cisco WebEX can be accessed by going to a URL sent by the meeting organizer and various degrees of security can be attached to the virtual room. WebRTC Platforms are video conferencing solutions that are not resident by using a software application but is available through the standard web browser.
Often the user will be required to download a piece of software, called an Add In to enable the browser to access the local camera, microphone and establish a connection to the meeting. WebRTC technology doesn t require any software or Add On installation, instead a WebRTC compliant internet browser itself acts as a client to facilitate 1-to-1 and 1-to-many videoconferencing calls. Several enhanced flavours of WebRTC technology are being provided by Third Party vendors.
Videoconferencing modes Edit. Videoconferencing systems use two methods to determine which video feed or feeds to display. Continuous Presence simply displays all participants at the same time, 30 usually with the exception that the viewer either does not see their own feed, or sees their own feed in miniature. Voice-Activated Switch selectively chooses a feed to display at each endpoint, with the goal of showing the person who is currently speaking. This is done by choosing the feed other than the viewer which has the loudest audio input perhaps with some filtering to avoid switching for very short-lived volume spikes.
Often if no remote parties are currently speaking, the feed with the last speaker remains on the screen. Echo cancellation Edit. Acoustic echo cancellation AEC is a processing algorithm that uses the knowledge of audio output to monitor audio input and filter from it noises that echo back after some time delay. If unattended, these echoes can be re-amplified several times, leading to problems including. A range of different cameras and microphones can be used with the codec, which contains the necessary codec and transmission interfaces.
Small group videoconferencing are either non-portable or portable, smaller, less expensive devices used for small meeting rooms. The remote party hearing their own voice coming back at them usually significantly delayed Strong reverberation, which makes the voice channel useless Howling created by feedback. Bandwidth requirements Edit. Echo cancellation is a processor-intensive task that usually works over a narrow range of sound delays.
Videophones have historically employed a variety of transmission and reception bandwidths, which can be understood as data transmission speeds. The lower the transmission reception bandwidth, the lower the data transfer rate, resulting in a progressively limited and poorer image quality i. lower resolution and or frame rate. Data transfer rates and live video image quality are related, but are also subject to other iqoption estrategia such as data compression techniques.
Broadband bandwidth is often called high-speedbecause it usually has a high rate of data transmission. Some early videophones employed very low data transmission rates with a resulting poor video quality. In general, any connection of 256 kbit s 0. 256 Mbit s or greater is more concisely considered broadband Internet. The International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector ITU-T recommendation I.
The Federal Communications Commission United States definition of broadband is 25 Mbit s. Currently, adequate video for some purposes becomes possible at data rates lower than the ITU-T broadband definition, with rates of 768 kbit s and 384 kbit s used for some video conferencing applications, and rates as low as 100 kbit s used for videophones using H.
264 MPEG-4 AVC compression protocols. The newer MPEG-4 video and audio compression format can deliver high-quality video at 2 Mbit s, which is at the low end of cable modem and ADSL broadband performance. 113 has defined broadband as a transmission capacity at 1. The console contains all electrical interfaces, the control computer, and the software or hardware-based codec.
Standards Edit. The International Telecommunications Union ITU has three umbrellas of standards for videoconferencing. 320 is known as the standard for public switched telephone networks PSTN or videoconferencing over integrated services digital networks. While still prevalent in Europe, ISDN was never widely adopted in the United States and Canada. citation needed ITU H. 264Scalable Video Coding SVC is a compression standard that enables videoconferencing systems to achieve highly error resilient Internet Protocol IP video transmissions over the public Internet without quality-of-service enhanced lines.
32 This standard has enabled wide scale deployment of high definition desktop videoconferencing and made possible new architectures, 33 which reduces latency between the transmitting sources and receivers, resulting in more fluid communication without pauses. In addition, an attractive factor for IP videoconferencing is that it is easier to set up for use along with web conferencing and data collaboration. These combined technologies enable users to have a richer multimedia environment for live meetings, collaboration and presentations.
80 videoconferencing is generally compatibilized with H. 324 standard point-to-point videotelephony over regular POTS phone lines. The Unified Communications Interoperability Forum UCIFa non-profit alliance between communications vendors, launched in May 2010. Founding members of UCIF include HP, Microsoft, Polycom, Logitech LifeSize Communications, and Juniper Networks. The organization s vision is to maximize the interoperability of UC based on existing standards.
Call setup Edit. Videoconferencing in the late 20th century was limited to the H. 323 protocol notably Cisco s SCCP implementation was an exceptionbut newer videophones often use SIP, which is often easier to set up in home networking environments. 323 is still used, but more commonly for business videoconferencing, while SIP is more commonly used in personal consumer videophones.
A number of call-setup methods based on instant messaging protocols such as Skype also now provide video. Another protocol used by videophones is H. 324, which mixes call setup and video compression. Videophones that work on regular phone lines typically use H. 324, but the bandwidth is limited by the modem to around 33 kbit s, limiting the video quality and frame rate. A slightly modified version of H.
324 called 3G-324M defined by 3GPP is also used by some cellphones that allow video calls, typically for use only in UMTS networks. There is also H. 320 standard, which specified technical requirements for narrow-band visual telephone systems and terminal equipment, typically for videoconferencing and videophone services. It applied mostly to dedicated circuit-based switched network point-to-point connections of moderate or high bandwidth, such as through the medium-bandwidth ISDN digital phone protocol or a fractionated high bandwidth T1 lines.
Modern products based on H. 320 standard usually support also H. The IAX2 protocol also supports videophone calls natively, using the protocol s own capabilities to transport alternate media streams. While additional software is required to patch together multiple video feeds for conference calls or convert between dissimilar video standards, SIP calls between two identical handsets within the same PBX were relatively straightforward. Conferencing layers Edit.
The components within a videoconferencing system can be divided up into several different layers User Interface, Conference Control, Control or Signaling Plane, and Media Plane. Videoconferencing User Interfaces VUI can be either graphical or voice-responsive. User interfaces for conferencing have a number of different uses; they can be used for scheduling, setup, and making a videocall. Many in the industry have encountered both types of interface, and normally a graphical interface is encountered on a computer.
Through the user interface the administrator is able to control the other three layers of the system. Conference Control performs resource allocation, management, and routing. This layer along with the User Interface creates meetings scheduled or unscheduled or adds and removes participants from a conference. Control Signaling Plane contains the stacks that signal different endpoints to create a call and or a conference.
Signals can be, but aren t limited to, H. 323 and Session Initiation Protocol SIP Protocols. These signals control incoming and outgoing connections as well as session parameters. The Media Plane controls the audio and video mixing and streaming. This layer manages Real-Time Transport Protocols, User Datagram Packets UDP and Real-Time Transport Control Protocol RTCP. The RTP and UDP normally carry information such the payload type which is the type of codec, frame rate, video size, and many others.
RTCP on the other hand acts as a quality control Protocol for detecting errors during streaming. Multipoint control Edit. Simultaneous videoconferencing among three or more remote points is possible in a hardware-based system by means of a Multipoint Control Unit MCU. This is a bridge that interconnects calls from several sources in a similar way to the audio conference call.
All parties call the MCU, or the MCU can also call the parties which are going to participate, in sequence. There are MCUs which are pure software, and others which are a combination of hardware and software. There are MCU bridges for IP and ISDN-based videoconferencing. An MCU is characterised according to the number of simultaneous calls it can handle, its ability to conduct transposing of data rates and protocols, and features such as Continuous Presence, in which multiple parties can be seen on-screen at once.
MCUs can be stand-alone hardware devices, or they can be embedded into dedicated videoconferencing units. The MCU consists of two logical components. A single multipoint controller MCand Multipoint Processors MPsometimes referred to as the mixer. The MC controls the conferencing while it is active on the signaling plane, which is simply where the system manages conferencing creation, endpoint signaling and in-conferencing controls. This component negotiates parameters with every endpoint in the network and controls conferencing resources.
While the MC controls resources and signaling negotiations, the MP operates on the media plane and receives media from iqoption estrategia endpoint. The MP generates output streams from each endpoint and redirects the information to other endpoints in the conference. Some systems are capable of multipoint conferencing with no MCU, stand-alone, embedded or otherwise.
These use a standards-based H. 323 technique known as decentralized multipointwhere each station in a multipoint call exchanges video and audio directly with the other stations with no central manager or other bottleneck. The advantages of this technique are that the video and audio will generally be of higher quality because they don t have to be relayed through a central point. Also, users can make ad hoc multipoint calls without any concern for the availability or control of an MCU.
This added convenience and quality comes at the expense of some increased network bandwidth, because every station must transmit to every other station directly. Cloud storage Edit. Cloud-based video conferencing can be used without the hardware generally required by other video conferencing systems, and can be designed for use by SMEs, 42 or larger international or multinational corporations like Facebook. 43 44 Cloud-based systems can handle either 2D or 3D video broadcasting.
A few hobbyists obtained the Nortel 1535 Color SIP Videophone cheaply in 2010 as surplus after Nortel s bankruptcy and deployed the sets on the Asterisk PBX platform. 45 Cloud-based systems can also implement mobile calls, VOIP, and other forms of video calling. They can also come with a video recording function to archive past meetings. High speed Internet connectivity has become more widely available at a reasonable cost and the cost of video capture and display technology has decreased.
Consequently, personal videoconferencing systems based on a webcam, personal computer system, software compression, and broadband Internet connectivity have become progressively more affordable to the general public. Also, the hardware used for this technology has continued to improve in quality, and prices have dropped dramatically. The availability of freeware often as part of chat programs has made software based videoconferencing accessible to many. The widest deployment of video telephony now occurs in mobile phones.
Nearly all mobile phones supporting UMTS networks can work as videophones using their internal cameras and are able to make video calls wirelessly to other UMTS users in the same country or internationally. citation needed As of the second quarter of 2007, there are over 131 million UMTS users and hence potential videophone userson 134 networks in 59 countries. citation needed Mobile phones can also use broadband wireless Internet, whether through the cell phone network or over a local wifi connection, along with software-based videophone apps to make calls to any video-capable Internet user, whether mobile or fixed.
Deaf, hard-of-hearing, and mute individuals have a particular role in the development of affordable high-quality videotelephony as a means of communicating with each other in sign language. Videophones are increasingly used in the provision of telemedicine to the elderly, disabled, and to those in remote locations, where the ease and convenience of quickly obtaining diagnostic and consultative medical services are readily apparent.
Unlike Video Relay Service, which is intended to support communication between a caller using sign language and another party using spoken language, videoconferencing can be used directly between two deaf signers. 47 In one single instance quoted in 2006 A nurse-led clinic at Letham has received positive feedback on a trial of a video-link which allowed 60 pensioners to be assessed by medics without travelling to a doctor s office or medical clinic.
47 A further improvement in telemedical services has been the development of new technology incorporated into special videophones to permit remote diagnostic services, such as blood sugar level, blood pressure, and vital signs monitoring. Videotelephony has also been deployed in corporate teleconferencing, also available through the use of public access videoconferencing rooms.
Such units are capable of relaying both regular audio-video plus medical data over either standard POTS telephone or newer broadband lines. A higher level of videoconferencing that employs advanced telecommunication technologies and high-resolution displays is called telepresence. Today the principles, if not the precise mechanisms, of a videophone are employed by many users worldwide in the form of webcam videocalls using personal computers, with inexpensive webcams, microphones, and free videocalling Web client programs.
Thus an activity that was disappointing as a separate service has found a niche as a minor feature in software products intended for other purposes. According to Juniper Research, smartphone videophone users will reach 29 million by 2015 globally. A study conducted by Pew Research in 2010, revealed that 7 of Americans have made a mobile video call.
Government and law Edit. In a military investigation in North Carolina, Afghan witnesses have testified via videoconferencing. In the United States, videoconferencing has allowed testimony to be used for an individual who is unable or prefers not to attend the physical legal settings or would be subjected to severe psychological stress in doing so, however, there is a controversy on the use of testimony by foreign or unavailable witnesses via video transmission, regarding the violation of the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment of the U.
In Hall County, Georgia, videoconferencing systems are used for initial court appearances. Social Security Administration SSAwhich oversees the world s largest administrative judicial system under its Office of Disability Adjudication and Review ODAR53 has made extensive use of videoconferencing to conduct hearings at remote locations. The systems link jails with court rooms, reducing the expenses and security risks of transporting prisoners to the courtroom.
Social Security Administration SSA conducted 86,320 videoconferenced hearings, a 55 increase over FY 2008. 55 In August 2010, the SSA opened its fifth and largest videoconferencing-only National Hearing Center NHCin St. Louis, Missouri. 54 In Fiscal Year FY 2009, the U. This continues the SSA s effort to use video hearings as a means to clear its substantial hearing backlog. Since 2007, the SSA has also established NHCs in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Baltimore, Maryland, Falls Church, Virginia, and Chicago.
Videoconferencing provides students with the opportunity to learn by participating in two-way communication forums. Furthermore, teachers and lecturers worldwide can be brought to remote or otherwise isolated educational facilities. Students from diverse communities and backgrounds can come together to learn about one another through practices known as telecollaboration 56 57 in foreign language education and virtual exchange, although language barriers will continue to be present.
Such students are able to explore, communicate, analyze, and share information and ideas with one another. Through videoconferencing, students can visit other parts of the world to speak with their peers, as well as visit museums and other cultural and educational facilities. Such virtual field trips can provide enriched learning opportunities to students, especially those in geographically isolated locations, and to the economically disadvantaged.
Small schools can use these technologies to pool resources and provide courses, such as in foreign languages, which could not otherwise be offered. A few examples of benefits that videoconferencing can provide in campus environments include. faculty members keeping in touch with classes while attending conferences; faculty members attending conferences virtually 58 59 guest lecturers brought in classes from other institutions; 60 researchers collaborating with colleagues at other institutions on a regular basis without loss of time due to travel; schools with multiple campuses collaborating and sharing professors; 61 schools from two separate nations engaging in cross-cultural exchanges; 62 faculty members participating in thesis defenses at other institutions; administrators on tight schedules collaborating on budget preparation from different parts of campus; faculty committee auditioning scholarship candidates; researchers answering questions about grant proposals from agencies or review committees; student interviews with employers in other cities, and teleseminars.
Videoconferencing is a highly useful technology for real time telemedicine and telenursing applications, such as diagnosis, consulting, transmission of medical images, etc. Medicine and health Edit. With videoconferencing, patients may contact nurses and physicians in emergency or routine situations; physicians and other paramedical professionals can discuss cases across large distances.
Rural areas can use this technology for diagnostic purposes, thus saving lives and making more efficient use of health care money. For example, a rural medical center in Ohio used videoconferencing to successfully cut the number of transfers of sick infants to a hospital 70 miles 110 km away. This had previously cost nearly 10,000 per transfer. Special peripherals such as microscopes fitted with digital cameras, videoendoscopes, medical ultrasound imaging devices, otoscopes, etc.can be used in conjunction with videoconferencing equipment to transmit data about a patient.
Recent developments in mobile collaboration on hand-held mobile devices have also extended video-conferencing capabilities to locations previously unreachable, such as a remote community, long-term care facility, or a patient s home. Videoconferencing can enable individuals in distant locations to participate in meetings on short notice, with time and money savings. Technology such as VoIP can be used in conjunction with desktop videoconferencing to enable low-cost face-to-face business meetings without leaving the desk, especially for businesses with widespread offices.
The technology is also used for telecommuting, in which employees work from home. One research report based on a sampling of 1,800 corporate employees showed that, as of June 2010, 54 of the respondents with access to video conferencing used it all of the time or frequently. Videoconferencing is also currently being introduced on online networking websites, in order to help businesses form profitable relationships quickly and efficiently without leaving their place of work.
Intel Corporation have used videoconferencing to reduce both costs and environmental impacts of its business operations. This has been leveraged by banks to connect busy banking professionals with customers in various locations using video banking technology. Videoconferencing on hand-held mobile devices mobile collaboration technology is being used in industries such as manufacturing, energy, healthcare, insurance, government, and public safety.
Live, visual interaction removes traditional restrictions of distance and time, often in locations previously unreachable, such as a manufacturing plant floor thousands of miles away. In the increasingly globalized film industry, videoconferencing has become useful as a method by which creative talent in many different locations can collaborate closely on the complex details of film production. For example, for the 2013 award-winning animated film FrozenBurbank-based Walt Disney Animation Studios hired the New York City-based husband-and-wife songwriting team of Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez to write the songs, which required two-hour-long transcontinental videoconferences nearly every weekday for about 14 months.
With the development of lower cost endpoints, cloud based infrastructure and technology trends such as WebRTC, Video Conferencing is moving from just a business-to-business offering, to a business-to-business and business-to-consumer offering. 73 Some such anxieties can be avoided if managers use the technology as part of the normal course of business.
Researchers also find that attendees of business and medical videoconferences must work harder to interpret information delivered during a conference than they would if they attended face-to-face. Remote workers can also adopt certain behaviors and best practices to stay connected with their co-workers and company. 75 They recommend that those coordinating videoconferences make adjustments to their conferencing procedures and equipment.
The concept of press videoconferencing was developed in October 2007 by the PanAfrican Press Association APPAa Paris France-based non-governmental organization, to allow African journalists to participate in international press conferences on developmental and good governance issues. Journalists can participate on an international press conference from any location, without leaving their offices or countries. Press videoconferencing permits international press conferences via videoconferencing over the Internet.
They need only be seated by a computer connected to the Internet in order to ask their questions. The site enables the IMF to present press briefings globally and facilitates direct questions to briefers from the press. Although videoconferencing has frequently proven its value, research has shown that some non-managerial employees prefer not to use it due to several factors, including anxiety. In 2004, the International Monetary Fund introduced the Online Media Briefing Center, a password-protected site available only to professional journalists.
The site has been copied by other international organizations since its inception. More than 4,000 journalists worldwide are currently registered with the IMF. Sign language Edit. One of the first demonstrations of the ability for telecommunications to help sign language users communicate with each other occurred when AT T s videophone trademarked as the Picturephone was introduced to the public at the 1964 New York World s Fair two deaf users were able to communicate freely with each other between the fair and another city.
The use of sign language via videotelephony was hampered for many years due to the difficulty of its use over slow analogue copper phone lines, 78 coupled with the high cost of better quality ISDN data phone lines. 77 Those factors largely disappeared with the introduction of more efficient and powerful video codecs and the advent of lower cost high-speed ISDN data and IP Internet services in the 1990s. 76 Various universities and other organizations, including British Telecom s Martlesham facility, have also conducted extensive research on signing via videotelephony.
21st-century improvements Edit. formerly Sorenson Vision Inc. Significant improvements in video call quality of service for the deaf occurred in the United States in 2003 when Sorenson Media Inc.a video compression software coding company, developed its VP-100 model stand-alone videophone specifically for the deaf community.
It was designed to output its video to the user s television in order to lower the cost of acquisition, and to offer remote control and a powerful video compression codec for unequaled video quality and ease of use with video relay services. Coupled with similar high-quality videophones introduced by other electronics manufacturers, the availability of high speed Internet, and sponsored video relay services authorized by the U. Federal Communications Commission in 2002, VRS services for the deaf underwent rapid growth in that country.
Using such video equipment in the present day, the deaf, hard-of-hearing, and speech-impaired can communicate between themselves and with hearing individuals using sign language. The United States and several other countries compensate companies to provide Video Relay Services VRS. Telecommunication equipment can be used to talk to others via a sign language interpreter, who uses a conventional telephone at the same time to communicate with the deaf person s party. Video equipment is also used to do on-site sign language translation via Video Remote Interpreting VRI.
The relative low cost and widespread availability of 3G mobile phone technology with video calling capabilities have given deaf and speech-impaired users a greater ability to communicate with the same ease as others. Some wireless operators have even started free sign language gateways. Sign language interpretation services via VRS or by VRI are useful in the present day where one of the parties is deaf, hard-of-hearing, or speech-impaired mute.
In such cases the interpretation flow is normally within the same principal language, such as French Sign Language LSF to spoken French, Spanish Sign Language LSE to spoken Spanish, British Sign Language BSL to spoken English, and American Sign Language ASL also to spoken English since BSL and ASL are completely distinct from each otherGerman Sign Language DGS to spoken German, and so on. Multilingual sign language interpreters, who can also translate as well across principal languages such as a multilingual interpreter interpreting a call from a deaf person using ASL to reserve a hotel room at a hotel in the Dominican Republic whose staff speaks Spanish only, therefore the interpreter has to utilize ASL, spoken Spanish, and spoken English to facilitate the call for the deaf personare also available, albeit less frequently.
With video interpreting, sign language interpreters work remotely with live video and audio feeds, so that the interpreter can see the deaf or mute party, and converse with the hearing party, and vice versa. Favourable reviews quickly led to its popular usage at educational facilities for the deaf, and from there to the greater deaf community. Much like telephone interpreting, video interpreting can be used for situations in which no on-site interpreters are available.
However, video interpreting cannot be used for situations in which all parties are speaking via telephone alone. VRS and VRI interpretation requires all parties to have the necessary equipment. Some advanced equipment enables interpreters to control the video camera remotely, in order to zoom in and out or to point the camera toward the party that is signing. The name videophone never became as standardized as its earlier counterpart telephoneresulting in a variety of names and terms being used worldwide, and even within the same region or country.
Videophones are also known as video phonesvideotelephones or video telephones and often by an early trademarked name Picturephonewhich was the world s first commercial videophone produced in volume. The compound name videophone slowly entered into general use after 1950, 81 although video telephone likely entered the lexicon earlier after video was coined in 1935. Such activities involve considerable mental processing efforts on the part of the translator, since sign languages are distinct natural languages with their own construction, semantics and syntax, different from the aural version of the same principal language.
Videophone calls also videocallsvideo chat 83 as well as Skype and Skyping in verb form 84 differ from videoconferencing in that they expect to serve individuals, not groups. In general everyday usage the term videoconferencing is now frequently used instead of videocall for point-to-point calls between two units. Both videophone calls and videoconferencing are also now commonly referred to as a video link. 2 However that distinction has become increasingly blurred with technology improvements such as increased bandwidth and sophisticated software clients that can allow for multiple parties on a call.
A videoconference system is generally higher cost than a videophone and deploys greater capabilities. A videoconference also known as a videoteleconference allows two or more locations to communicate via live, simultaneous two-way video and audio transmissions. Again, technology improvements have circumvented traditional definitions by allowing multiple party videoconferencing via web-based applications.
A telepresence system is a high-end videoconferencing system and service usually employed by enterprise-level corporate offices. This is often accomplished by the use of a multipoint control unit a centralized distribution and call management system or by a similar non-centralized multipoint capability embedded in each videoconferencing unit. Telepresence conference rooms use state-of-the art room designs, video cameras, displays, sound-systems and processors, coupled with high-to-very-high capacity bandwidth transmissions.
Typical use of the various technologies described above include calling or conferencing on a one-on-one, one-to-many or many-to-many basis for personal, business, educational, deaf Video Relay Service and tele-medical, diagnostic and rehabilitative use or services. New services utilizing videocalling and videoconferencing, such as teachers and psychologists conducting online sessions, 87 personal videocalls to inmates incarcerated in penitentiaries, and videoconferencing to resolve airline engineering issues at maintenance facilities, are being created or evolving on an ongoing basis.
A telepresence robot also telerobotics is a robotically controlled and motorized video conferencing display to help give a better sense of remote physical presence for communication and collaboration in an office, home, school, etc. when one cannot be there in person. The robotic avatar device can move about and look around at the command of the remote person it represents. In science fiction literature, names commonly associated with videophones include telephonoscopetelephoteviewphonevidphonevidfoneand visiphone.
The first example was probably the cartoon Edison s Telephonoscope by George du Maurier in Punch 1878. 90 In many science fiction movies and TV programs that are set in the future, videophones were used as a primary method of communication. Latin-based translations of videophone in other languages include vidéophone FrenchBildtelefon Germanvideotelefono Italianboth videófono and videoteléfono Spanishboth beeldtelefoon and videofoon Dutchand videofonía Catalan.
One of the first movies where a videophone was used was Fritz Lang s Metropolis 1927. Other notable examples of videophones in popular culture include an iconic scene from the 1968 film 2001 A Space Odyssey set on Space Station V. The movie was released shortly before AT T began its efforts to commercialize its Picturephone Mod II service in several cities and depicts a videocall to Earth using an advanced AT T videophone which it predicts will cost 1.
70 for a two-minute call in 2001 a fraction of the company s real rates on Earth in 1968. Film director Stanley Kubrick strove for scientific accuracy, relying on interviews with scientists and engineers at Bell Labs in the United States. Larry Rabiner of Bell Labs, discussing videophone research in the documentary 2001 The Making of a Mythstated that in the mid- to late-1960s videophones. captured the imagination of the public and. Kubrick and the people who reported to him.
In one 2001 movie scene a central character, Dr. Heywood Floyd, calls home to contact his family, a social feature noted in the Making of a Myth. Floyd talks with and views his daughter from a space station in orbit above the Earth, discussing what type of present he should bring home for her. 92 unreliable source 93 94. A portable videophone is also featured prominently in the 2009 science fiction movie Moonwhere the story s protagonist, Sam Bell, also calls home as well to communicate with loved ones.
Bell, the lone occupant of a mining station on the far side of the Earth s moon, finally succeeds in making his videocall after an extended work period, but becomes traumatized when viewing his daughter. Other earlier examples of videophones in popular culture included a videophone that was featured in the Warner Bros. cartoon, Plane Daffyin which the female spy Hatta Mari used a videophone to communicate with Adolf Hitler 1944as well as a device with the same functionality has been used by the comic strip character Dick Tracywho often used his 2-way wrist TV to communicate with police headquarters.
96 1964 1977. By the early 2010s videotelephony and videophones had become commonplace and unremarkable in various forms of media, in part due to their real and ubiquitous presence in common electronic devices and laptop computers. Additionally, TV programming increasingly utilized videophones to interview subjects of interest and to present live coverage by news correspondents, via the Internet or by satellite links.
In the mass market media, the popular U. TV talk show hostess Oprah Winfrey incorporated videotelephony into her TV program on a regular basis from May 21, 2009, with an initial episode called Where the Skype Are You.as part of a marketing agreement with the Internet telecommunication company Skype. Additionally, videophones have been featured in. Lisa s Weddingan episode of The Simpsons which depicted a Picturephone 1995.
Other names for videophone that have been used in English are Viewphone the British Telecom iqoption estrategia to AT T s Picturephone88 and visiophonea common French translation that has also crept into limited English usage, as well as over twenty less common names and expressions. 99 a Beyoncé Knowles iqoption estrategia single and music video called Video Phone from her album I am.
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Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, 2 developed in IBM s DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci. against champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, 4 7 winning the first place prize of 1 million. 6 and, in 2011, the Watson computer system competed on Jeopardy.
In February 2013, IBM announced that Watson software system s first commercial application would be for utilization management decisions in lung cancer treatment at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, in conjunction with WellPoint now Anthem. 9 In 2013, Manoj Saxena, IBM Watson s business chief said that 90 of nurses in the field who use Watson now follow its guidance.
1 Description 1. Watson computer. 1 Software 1. 2 Hardware 1. 1 Comparison with human players 3 History 3. 3 Data 2 Operation 2. 1 Development 3. 1 Preparation 3. 2 Practice match 3. 3 First match 3. 4 Second match 3. 5 Final outcome 3. 6 Philosophy 3. 7 Match against members of the United States Congress 4 Current and future applications 4. 1 Healthcare 4. 2 IBM Watson Group 4. 4 Building codes 4. 5 Teaching assistant 4. 6 Weather forecasting 4. The computer system was initially developed to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy.
9 Advertising 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links 8. The key difference between QA technology and document search is that document search takes a keyword query and returns a list of documents, ranked in order of relevance to the query often based on popularity and page rankingwhile QA technology takes a question expressed in natural language, seeks to understand it in much greater detail, and returns a precise answer to the question.
8 Tax preparation 4. When created, IBM stated that, more than 100 different techniques are used to analyze natural language, identify sources, find and generate hypotheses, find and score evidence, and merge and rank hypotheses. In recent years, the Watson capabilities have been extended and the way in which Watson works has been changed to take advantage of new deployment models Watson on IBM Cloud and evolved machine learning capabilities and optimised hardware available to developers and researchers.
It is no longer purely a question answering QA computing system designed from Q A pairs but can now seehearreadtalktasteinterpretlearn and recommend. The system was written in various languages, including Java, Cand Prolog, and runs on the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 11 operating system using the Apache Hadoop framework to provide distributed computing.
2 Watson employs a cluster of ninety IBM Power 750 servers, each of which uses a 3. 5 GHz POWER7 eight-core processor, with four threads per core. According to John Rennie, Watson can process 500 gigabytes, the equivalent of a million books, per second. 18 IBM s master inventor and senior consultant, Tony Pearson, estimated Watson s hardware cost at about three million dollars.
In total, the system has 2,880 POWER7 processor threads and 16 terabytes of RAM. 20 According to Rennie, all content was stored in Watson s RAM for the Jeopardy game because data stored on hard drives would be too slow to be competitive with human Jeopardy champions. The sources of information for Watson include encyclopedias, dictionaries, thesauri, newswire articles and literary works. Watson also used databases, taxonomies and ontologies including DBPedia, WordNet and Yago.
21 The IBM team provided Watson with millions of documents, including dictionaries, encyclopedias and other reference material that it could use to build its knowledge. clues sounded just like mine. That machine zeroes in on keywords in a clue then combs its memory in Watson s case, a 15-terabyte databank of human knowledge for clusters of associations with those words. The computer s techniques for unravelling Jeopardy. And when it feels sure enough, it decides to buzz. This is all an instant, intuitive process for a human Jeopardy.
player, but I felt convinced that under the hood my brain was doing more or less the same thing. It rigorously checks the top hits against all the contextual information it can muster the category name; the kind of answer being sought; the time, place, and gender hinted at in the clue; and so on. Watson parses questions into different keywords and sentence fragments in order to find statistically related phrases.
22 Watson s main innovation was not in the creation of a new algorithm for this operation but rather its ability to quickly execute hundreds of proven language analysis algorithms simultaneously. 22 24 The more algorithms that find the same answer independently the more likely Watson is to be correct. 22 Once Watson has a small number of potential solutions, it is able to check against its database to ascertain whether the solution makes sense or not.
Comparison with human players Edit. Watson s basic working principle is to parse keywords in a clue while searching for related terms as responses. This gives Watson some advantages and disadvantages compared with human Jeopardy. 25 Watson has deficiencies in understanding the contexts of the clues. As a result, human players usually generate responses faster than Watson, especially to short clues. 22 Watson has consistently better reaction time on the buzzer once it has generated a response, and is immune to human players psychological tactics, such as jumping between categories on every clue.
22 Watson s programming prevents it from using the popular tactic of buzzing before it is sure of its response. In a sequence of 20 mock games of Jeopardyhuman participants were able to use the average six to seven seconds that Watson needed to hear the clue and decide whether to signal for responding. 22 During that time, Watson also has to evaluate the response and determine whether it is sufficiently confident in the result to signal.
22 Part of the system used to win the Jeopardy. contest was the electronic circuitry that receives the ready signal and then examined whether Watson s confidence level was great enough to activate the buzzer. Given the speed of this circuitry compared to the speed of human reaction times, Watson s reaction time was faster than the human contestants except when the human anticipated instead of reacted to the ready signal. s question format. 22 Watson s voice was synthesized from recordings that actor Jeff Woodman made for an IBM text-to-speech program in 2004.
The Jeopardy. staff used different means to notify Watson and the human players when to buzz, 27 which was critical in many rounds. 26 The humans were notified by a light, which took them tenths of a second to perceive. 29 30 Watson was notified by an electronic signal and could activate the buzzer within about eight milliseconds. 31 The humans tried to compensate for the perception delay by anticipating the light, 32 but the variation in the anticipation time was generally too great to fall within Watson s response time.
26 Watson did not attempt to anticipate the notification signal. Since Deep Blue s victory over Garry Kasparov in chess in 1997, IBM had been on the hunt for a new challenge. 27 After signaling, Watson speaks with an electronic voice and gives the responses in Jeopardy. In 2004, IBM Research manager Charles Lickel, over dinner with coworkers, noticed that the restaurant they were in had fallen silent.
He soon discovered the cause of this evening hiatus Ken Jennings, who was then in the middle of his successful 74-game run on Jeopardy. Nearly the entire restaurant had piled toward the televisions, mid-meal, to watch Jeopardy. Intrigued by the quiz show as a possible challenge for IBM, Lickel passed the idea on, and in 2005, IBM Research executive Paul Horn supported Lickel, pushing for someone in his department to take up the challenge of playing Jeopardy.
with an IBM system. 19 Its Linpack performance stands at 80 TeraFLOPs, which is about half as fast as the cut-off line for the Top 500 Supercomputers list. Though he initially had trouble finding any research staff willing to take on what looked to be a much more complex challenge than the wordless game of chess, eventually David Ferrucci took him up on the offer. 33 In competitions managed by the United States government, Watson s predecessor, a system named Piquant, was usually able to respond correctly to only about 35 of clues and often required several minutes to respond.Watson would need to respond in no more than a few seconds, and at that time, the problems posed by the game show were deemed to be impossible to solve.
In initial tests run during 2006 by David Ferrucci, the senior manager of IBM s Semantic Analysis and Integration department, Watson was given 500 clues from past Jeopardy. While the best real-life competitors buzzed in half the time and responded correctly to as many as 95 of clues, Watson s first pass could get only about 15 correct.
During 2007, the IBM team was given three to five years and a staff of 15 people to solve the problems. Kelly III succeeded Paul Horn as head of IBM Research in 2007. 37 InformationWeek described Kelly as the father of Watson and credited him for encouraging the system to compete against humans on Jeopardy. 34 35 36 To compete successfully on Jeopardy. 22 By February 2010, Watson could beat human Jeopardy.
38 By 2008, the developers had advanced Watson such that it could compete with Jeopardy. contestants on a regular basis. During the game, Watson had access to 200 million pages of structured and unstructured content consuming four terabytes of disk storage 14 including the full text of the 2011 edition of Wikipedia, 40 but was not connected to the Internet.
41 22 For each clue, Watson s three most probable responses were displayed on the television screen. Watson consistently outperformed its human opponents on the game s signaling device, but had trouble in a few categories, notably those having short clues containing only a few words. In 2008, IBM representatives communicated with Jeopardy. executive producer Harry Friedman about the possibility of having Watson compete against Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter, two of the most successful contestants on the show, and the program s producers agreed.
22 43 Watson s differences with human players had generated conflicts between IBM and Jeopardy. The system is workload-optimized, integrating massively parallel POWER7 processors and built on IBM s DeepQA technology, 17 which it uses to generate hypotheses, gather massive evidence, and analyze data. staff during the planning of the competition. 25 IBM repeatedly expressed concerns that the show s writers would exploit Watson s cognitive deficiencies when writing the clues, thereby turning the game into a Turing test.
To alleviate that claim, a third party randomly picked the clues from previously written shows that were never broadcast. 25 Jeopardy. staff also showed concerns over Watson s reaction time on the buzzer. Originally Watson signalled electronically, but show staff requested that it press a button physically, as the human contestants would. 44 Even with a robotic finger pressing the buzzer, Watson remained faster than its human competitors. Ken Jennings noted, If you re trying to win on the show, the buzzer is alland that Watson can knock out a microsecond-precise buzz every single time with little or no variation.
Human reflexes can t compete with computer circuits in this regard. 26 32 45 Stephen Baker, a journalist who recorded Watson s development in his book Final Jeopardyreported that the conflict between IBM and Jeopardy. became so serious in May 2010 that the competition was almost canceled. Human players, including former Jeopardy. 25 As part of the preparation, IBM constructed a mock set in a conference room at one of its technology sites to model the one used on Jeopardy.
contestants, also participated in mock games against Watson with Todd Alan Crain of The Onion playing host. 22 About 100 test matches were conducted with Watson winning 65 of the games. To provide a physical presence in the televised games, Watson was represented by an avatar of a globe, inspired by the IBM smarter planet symbol. Jennings described the computer s avatar as a glowing blue ball criss-crossed by threads of thought 42 threads, to be precise23 and stated that the number of thought threads in the avatar was an in-joke referencing the significance of the number 42 in Douglas Adams Hitchhiker s Guide to the Galaxy.
A practice match was recorded on January 13, 2011, and the official matches were recorded on January 14, 2011. 23 Joshua Davis, the artist who designed the avatar for the project, explained to Stephen Baker that there are 36 triggerable states that Watson was able to use throughout the game to show its confidence in responding to a clue correctly; he had hoped to be able to find forty-two, to add another level to the Hitchhiker s Guide reference, but he was unable to pinpoint enough game states.
Practice match Edit. All participants maintained secrecy about the outcome until the match was broadcast in February. In a practice match before the press on January 13, 2011, Watson won a 15-question round against Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter with a score of 4,400 to Jennings s 3,400 and Rutter s 1,200, though Jennings and Watson were tied before the final 1,000 question. First match Edit. None of the three players responded incorrectly to a clue.
The first round was broadcast February 14, 2011, and the second round, on February 15, 2011. The right to choose the first category had been determined by a draw won by Rutter. 50 Watson, represented by a computer monitor display and artificial voice, responded correctly to the second clue and then selected the fourth clue of the first category, a deliberate strategy to find the Daily Double as quickly as possible.
51 Watson s guess at the Daily Double location was correct. At the end of the first round, Watson was tied with Rutter at 5,000; Jennings had 2,000. Watson s performance was characterized by some quirks. In one instance, Watson repeated a reworded version of an incorrect response offered by Jennings. Jennings said What are the 20s. in reference to the 1920s. Then Watson said What is 1920s. Because Watson could not recognize other contestants responses, it did not know that Jennings had already given the same response.
after Jennings incorrectly responded What is he only had one hand. In another instance, Watson was initially given credit for a response of What is a leg. to a clue about George Eyser the correct response was, What is he s missing a leg. Because Watson, unlike a human, could not have been responding to Jennings s mistake, it was decided that this response was incorrect. 52 Watson also demonstrated complex wagering strategies on the Daily Doubles, with one bet at 6,435 and another at 1,246.
53 Gerald Tesauro, one of the IBM researchers who worked on Watson, explained that Watson s wagers were based on its confidence level for the category and a complex regression model called the Game State Evaluator. Watson took a commanding lead in Double Jeopardy.correctly responding to both Daily Doubles. Watson responded to the second Daily Double correctly with a 32 confidence score. However during the Final Jeopardy.
The broadcast version of the episode was edited to omit Trebek s original acceptance of Watson s response. round, Watson was the only contestant to miss the clue in the category U. Cities Its largest airport was named for a World War II hero; its second largest, for a World War II battle. Rutter and Jennings gave the correct response of Chicago, but Watson s response was What is Toronto. 53 55 56 Ferrucci offered reasons why Watson would appear to have guessed a Canadian city categories only weakly suggest the type of response desired, the phrase U.
with five question marks appended indicating a lack of confidence. city did not appear in the question, there are cities named Toronto in the U.and Toronto in Ontario has an American League baseball team. Chris Welty, who also worked on Watson, suggested that it may not have been able to correctly parse the second part of the clue, its second largest, for a World War II battle which was not a standalone clause despite it following a semicolon, and required context to understand that it was referring to a second-largest airport.
58 Eric Nyberg, a professor at Carnegie Mellon University and a member of the development team, stated that the error occurred because Watson does not possess the comparative knowledge to discard that potential response as not viable. 56 Although not displayed to the audience as with non-Final Jeopardy. questions, Watson s second choice was Chicago. Watson wagered only 947 on the question.
The game ended with Jennings with 4,800, Rutter with 10,400, and Watson with 35,734. Second match Edit. During the introduction, Trebek a Canadian native joked that he had learned Toronto was a U. city, and Watson s error in the first match prompted an IBM engineer to wear a Toronto Blue Jays jacket to the recording of the second match. In the first round, Jennings was finally able to choose a Daily Double clue, 60 while Watson responded to one Daily Double clue incorrectly for the first time in the Double Jeopardy.
61 After the first round, Watson placed second for the first time in the competition after Rutter and Jennings were briefly successful in increasing their dollar values before Watson could respond. 61 62 Nonetheless, the final result ended with a victory for Watson with a score of 77,147, besting Jennings who scored 24,000 and Rutter who scored 21,600. Final outcome Edit. The prizes for the competition were 1 million for first place Watson300,000 for second place Jenningsand 200,000 for third place Rutter.
As promised, IBM donated 100 of Watson s winnings to charity, with 50 of those winnings going to World Vision and 50 going to World Community Grid. 64 Similarly, Jennings and Rutter donated 50 of their winnings to their respective charities. In acknowledgment of IBM and Watson s achievements, Jennings made an additional remark in his Final Jeopardy.
response I for one welcome our new computer overlordsechoing a similar meme to the episode Deep Space Homer on The Simpsonsin which TV news presenter Kent Brockman speaks of welcoming our new insect overlords. 66 67 Jennings later wrote an article for Slatein which he stated. IBM has bragged to the media that Watson s question-answering skills are good for more than annoying Alex Trebek.
The company sees a future in which fields like medical diagnosis, business analytics, and tech support are automated by question-answering software like Watson. Just as factory jobs were eliminated in the 20th century by new assembly-line robots, Brad and I were the first knowledge-industry workers put out of work by the new generation of thinking machines. Quiz show contestant may be the first job made redundant by Watson, but I m sure it won t be the last.
Philosopher John Searle argues that Watson despite impressive capabilities cannot actually think. 68 Drawing on his Chinese room thought experiment, Searle claims that Watson, like other computational machines, is capable only of manipulating symbols, but has no ability to understand the meaning of those symbols; however, Searle s experiment has its detractors. Match against members of the United States Congress Edit.
On February 28, 2011, Watson played an untelevised exhibition match of Jeopardy. against members of the United States House of Representatives. In the first round, Rush D. D-NJ, a former Jeopardy. contestantwho was challenging the computer with Bill Cassidy R-LA, later Senator from Louisianaled with Watson in second place.
However, combining the scores between all matches, the final score was 40,300 for Watson and 30,000 for the congressional players combined. IBM s Christopher Padilla said of the match, The technology behind Watson represents a major advancement in computing. In the data-intensive environment of government, this type of technology can help organizations make better decisions and improve how government helps its citizens.
According to IBM, The goal is to have computers start to interact in natural human terms across a range of applications and processes, understanding the questions that humans ask and providing answers that humans can understand and justify. 39 It has been suggested by Robert C. Weber, IBM s general counsel, that Watson may be used for legal research. 71 The company also intends to use Watson in other information-intensive fields, such as telecommunications, financial services, and government.
Watson is based on commercially available IBM Power 750 servers that have been marketed since February 2010. IBM also intends to market the DeepQA software to large corporations, with a price in the millions of dollars, reflecting the 1 million needed to acquire a server that meets the minimum system requirement to operate Watson.
IBM expects the price to decrease substantially within a decade as the technology improves. Commentator Rick Merritt said that there s another really important reason why it is strategic for IBM to be seen very broadly by the American public as a company that can tackle tough computer problems. A big slice of IBM s profit comes from selling to the U. government some of the biggest, most expensive systems in the world.
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