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And Europe are reliant on imported energy and critical raw materials; we are living in a time of interdependence. The reliance on interdependence requires the defense of potential suppliers and most importantly the delivery systems and the transport lanes sea lanes. The cost in monetary terms is huge, but the potential in terms of life may be even greater. The companies seeking foreign supply of new sources are major investors in the countries that are potentially the greatest threat to the West, such as Iran.

These investments will result in the countries using these funds to build nuclear weapons potentially to cause a nuclear holocaust. We commonly only think in terms of oil and fuel for automobiles, but we are also importing energy in the form of the materials we commonly use such as plastics, aluminum, copper, steel and most importantly fertilizer. Increasing the production of ethanol jeopardizes both our energy and our food supply.

because of an environmental concern can be just as devastating to security as the transfer of nuclear material to a rogue nation. currently imports over 50 of their ammonia--urea used to grow our crops. Similar conditions also exist for other basic materials. The Disordered World Beyond. For 60 years the transatlantic alliance had been the pillar of European security, the bridge uniting the two great centers of Western civilization.

Four years ago this month it nearly collapsed amid the diplomatic traumas that preceded the Iraq war. Diplomats on both sides say, and many even seem to believe, that the transatlantic partnership has been brought back from the brink, and is once again playing a central role in global security. They speak of progress in transatlantic efforts to defuse Iran s nuclear program, to bring a lasting peace to Lebanon, and to move the Balkans steadily toward a lasting stability.

Last month in Iqoption api documentation, Spain, NATO s defense ministers met to discuss an urgent request to commit more troops and equipment to the war in Afghanistan from General Bantz Craddock. The ministers heard a sobering assessment from Gen. Craddock of the stalled progress in Afghanistan and of the probability of a spring offensive against the United States and NATO forces by the Taliban and al Qaeda. The response, according to one official present, was negative.

They don t share our view of the scale and nature of the threat that Afghanistan represents, says a U. official who was there. This, remember, is not Iraq, which many European governments opposed, but Afghanistan, the good war, the fight against the people who gave us September 11. This gulf applies not just to Afghanistan. This is the struggle that was prefigured when the NATO governments invoked for the first time in the alliance s history Article V, the collective defense clause, pledging to do what was necessary to defend their allies.

Consider European responses to the deteriorating situation in Russia. Last month Vladimir Putin marched into the very cockpit of the transatlantic alliance, the annual Munich Security Conference, and flipped a frosty Moscow finger at the assembled Europeans and Americans. He attacked the United States as a bullying unilateralist that was tearing up international law. He denounced NATO s expansion to Russia s borders and even found time to insult the Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe, the stately body that has been aiding and promoting democratic reform in the former Soviet bloc, as a vulgar institution.

But just as the Europeans in the audience were nodding in approval, the Russian president turned on them too. The carefully structured world imagined by the west s leaders after the collapse of communism has proved a mirage. The initial reaction, even from Europeans, was hostile. But on reflection, they seemed to decide that a supportive cringe would be more appropriate. A senior German official commented that there was much in what Putin had said that would resonate in Europe.

The SпїЅddeutsche Zeitung, a supposedly sober newspaper, blamed the United States for the new Cold War atmosphere, saying it had created the opportunity for Putin to set himself up as the powerful voice of the growing number of countries and peoples who are stricken by doubt in the wisdom of Western policies. This, sadly, for all the continent s boastful claims of a new transatlantic partnership, is the true voice of modern Europe a Europe that refuses to fight a war, to which it has pledged itself, against terrorists in Afghanistan; a Europe that declines to stand up to a Russian president who condemns its efforts to spread democracy even as his KGB friends eliminate their critics in European capitals.

Whether it stands for anything is much less clear. The transatlantic partnership may be back together again. Later the German government hosted celebrations to mark the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, the covenant that marked the birth of the institution that became the European Union. Chancellor Merkel and her 26 fellow heads of government used the occasion to launch the Berlin Declaration, a document intended to serve as the signposts for the future evolution of the E.

The final details of the declaration are still under negotiation but the outlines are clear. After the usual self-congratulatory preamble paying stirring tribute to the E. s role in preserving the peace and generating prosperity over the last 50 years, the document will address the challenges of the future. What challenges are these. Terrorism, perhaps nuclear proliferation, the spread in Europe and the Middle East of Islamist ideology.

Wrong on all counts. On its 50th birthday, the E. will commit itself to fighting global warming, the economic dislocations caused by globalization and, most courageous of all, the institutional shortcomings of the union itself. Europeans will try hard to continue believing that they can huddle in their comfortable corner against the storms. Opinion polls show that an overwhelming majority of European voters and a growing percentage in Americas believe peace comes before all else.

Nothing wrong with that -- except when the inference is that Europe s eternal role is that of the concerned bystander; and sometimes even Americans are not even overly concerned. Thoughtful policymakers have been struck, and dismayed, by apparent public indifference towards the plight of Darfur. This last means, by the way, at least in the German view, a resurrection of the European constitution, the blueprint for a nascent federal European state that was, you may remember, roundly rejected by voters in France and the Netherlands two years ago.

The Islamic radicals we are fighting know they are far less wealthy and far less advanced in technology and weaponry than the United States. As depressing, is a visible weakening in the resolve of European governments and Americans to defeat the defeat of forces threatening to destroy Western civilization. But they believe they will prevail in this war, as they did against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, by wearing us down and breaking our will.

They believe America and the West are the weak horse -- soft, irresolute, and decadent. Al-Zarqawi once said Americans are the most cowardly of God s creatures. The war against global jihadism will be long, and we will experience success and setbacks along the way. The temptation of the West will be to grow impatient and, in the face of this long struggle, to grow weary.

Some will demand a quick victory and, absent that, they will want to withdraw from the battle. But this is a war from which we cannot withdraw. As we saw on September 11th, there are no safe harbors in which to hide. Our enemies have declared war on us, and their hatreds cannot be sated. We will either defeat them, or they will come after us with the unsheathed sword. They will discover otherwise. The west s interests as it navigates this rugged geopolitical terrain are as they have ever been to export security, prosperity and, yes, liberal democratic values beyond its frontiers.

On this, moral impulse, and hard headed interests are one. As it happens, the rising powers will discover over time that they have the same stake in an ordered world. But getting from here to there will not be an easy journey. With every passing year following the events of 9 11 the rise of Leftist Marxist-Islamist Alliance has increased global instability. By the beginning of 2006, nearly all the combustible ingredients far bigger in scale than those leading to World Wars I and II and the Gulf Wars of 1991 or 2003 were in place.

All of us would prefer years of repose to years of conflict. And so it once again rests with us to do what we have done in the past it is our duty. Constantly struggling to survive on a shoestring budget, it encountered opposition from without and within. Most small companies have plans to grow their business and increase sales and profits. Growth Strategies in Business.

However, there are certain methods companies must use for implementing a growth strategy. The method a company uses to expand its business is largely contingent upon its financial situation, the competition and even government regulation. Some common growth strategies in business include market penetration, market expansion, product expansion, diversification and acquisition.

One growth strategy in business is market penetration. A small company uses a market penetration strategy when it decides to market existing products within the same market it has been using. The only way to grow using existing products and markets is to increase market share, according to small business experts. Market share is the percent of unit and dollar sales a company holds within a certain market vs.

Market Penetration Strategy. all other competitors. One way to increase market share is by lowering prices. Market Expansion or Development. For example, in markets where there is little differentiation among products, a lower price may help a company increase its share of the market. A market expansion growth strategy, often called market development, entails selling current products in a new market.

There iqoption api documentation reasons why a company may consider a market expansion strategy. First, the competition may be such that there is no room for growth within the current market. If a business does not find new markets for its products, it cannot increase sales or profits. A small company may also use a market expansion strategy if it finds new uses for its product. For example, a small soap distributor that sells to retail stores may discover that factory workers also use its product.

Product Expansion Strategy. A small company may also expand its product line or add new features to increase its sales and profits. A product expansion growth strategy often works well when technology starts to change. When small companies employ a product expansion strategy, also known as product development, they continue selling within the existing market.

A small company may also be forced to add new products as older ones become outmoded. Growth Through Diversification. Growth strategies in business also include diversification, where a small company will sell new products to new markets. This type of strategy can be very risky. Marketing research is essential because a company will need to determine if consumers in the new market will potentially like the new products.

A small company will need to plan carefully when using a diversification growth strategy. Acquisition of Other Companies. Growth strategies in business can also includes an acquisition. In acquisition, a company purchases another company to expand its operations. An acquisition growth strategy can be risky, but not as risky as a diversification strategy.

One reason is that the products and market are already established. A company must know exactly what it wants to achieve when using an acquisition strategy, mainly because of the significant investment required to implement it. A small company may use this type of strategy to expand its product line and enter new markets. Mensa, the high IQ society, provides a forum for intellectual exchange among its members. Anyone with an IQ in the top 2 of the population can join Mensa.

Welcome to Mensa, the High IQ Society. There are members in more than 100 countries around the world. What is Mensa. Discover Intelligence. Activities include the exchange of ideas through lectures, discussions, journals, special-interest groups, and local, regional, national and international gatherings; the investigations of members opinions and attitudes; and assistance to researchers, inside and outside Mensa, in projects dealing with intelligence or Mensa. What our members say about us. I was looking for a community, new friends and an environment where I can speak faster.

And, yes, I found it. I guess I was looking for some external reinforcement. I thought I would never have the time to attend the programmes as I had two young children. Originally, I just wanted to have my IQ tested. I found a great community, interesting activities, lots of love and, eventually, a husband as well. Out of curiosity, I finally joined Mensa and I have been a member for 14 years now. The world was a hostile territory. In order to preserve my human relationships, I had to wear a mask of courtesy.

Still, under this mask, I was alone. Alone and lonely. I wanted to get rid of this mask; I was looking for an environment where people can understand me. And at the end, the people I found in Mensa tamed me they made me a better person. I entered the community like a strange, wild animal and some members just reached out for me and took me in. I am grateful. It is an honour to be a member of Mensa. From the very first moment, my eyes have been sparkling finally, I arrived in a place where people share similar thoughts, say similar puns, have similar associations like I have.

Naturally, I also see the differences different characters, attitudes and views some of these I embrace, others I reject, but this makes the world complete. We cannot be different in the same way. I enjoy encountering many different opinions within Mensa. And yes, the daily dose of humour is addictive. Thank you all for adding colour to my days and to grey matter as well.

In most cases, we manage to exchange opinions and discuss even sensitive topics without major fights My horizon definitely became broader and I have been enriched with lots of new information. What has Mensa given me. Friends, a community, a big family, numerous fantastic programs and activities. Also, I discovered the security of receiving help for any problem I might have. Now I have friends and acquaintances across the entire country.

I have always been a misfit. I took the test to see if I really do differ from the average. And then, during the first meeting with fellow Mensans, I had this sense of homecoming as if arriving from another galaxy to a place where I belong. I met plenty of valuable people many of them I consider friends and there are lots of them I look up to. I joined the club out of curiosity. What I found was a huge playground beyond imagination.

2020 Mensa Foundation International Scholarship Winners. The Mensa Foundation is proud to announce its 2020 Mensa. Mensa Mexico has achieved Full National Status. I can report another wonderful achievement we will. MENSA BRAIN TRAINING. Download our app and challenge your brain. Find your local mensa. 2000 - 2020 Mensa International Limited.

Mensa International Limited is a company registered in England and Wales No. Honda Motor Company, Ltd. JapaneseHepburn Honda Giken Kōgyō KKIPA honda listen ; ˈ h ɒ n d ə is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment. Honda Motor Co. Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha. Public Traded as TYO 7267 NYSE HMC TOPIX Core 30 Component ISIN JP3854600008 Industry Conglomerate Founded Hamamatsu, Japan October 1946 1946-10incorporated 24 September 1948 ; 71 years ago 1948-09-24 Founders.

Soichiro Honda Takeo Fujisawa. Toshiaki Mikoshiba chairman Takahiro Hachigo president and CEO. Automobiles commercial vehicles luxury vehicles motorcycles Scooters electric generators water pumps lawn and garden equipment rotary tillers outboard motors robotics jet aircraft jet engines thin-film solar cells internavi telematics. 36 trillion 2018 1. 5 billion 2018 1. 05 trillion 2018 1 Total assets 19. 34 trillion 2018 1 Total equity 8. 23 trillion 2018 1 Owners. 46 TMTBJ investment trusts 4.

JTSBinvestment trusts 6. 71 Chase BankADRs nominated by Moxley Co. 09 Meiji Yasuda Life 2. 83 Tokio Marine 2. 35 As of March 2014. 215,638 2018 1 Divisions. Acura Honda Aircraft Company Honda Automobiles Honda Motorcycles. Transportation American Honda Motor Company Acura Honda Aircraft Company Honda Performance Development Honda Automobile China Company 50 Guangqi Honda Automobile 50 Li Nian Everus Honda Seil Cars India Honda Motorcycle and Scooter India Dongfeng Honda 50 Honda Spain Montesa Air Transportation Honda Airways Sports Honda Racing F1 Honda Racing Engines GE Honda Aero Engines 50 Other Mobilityland 100 International Honda Pakistan Honda Canada Inc.

Honda Taiwan Honda UK ltd. Honda has been the world s largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, 2 3 reaching a production of 400 million by the end of 2019, 4 as well as the world s largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. 5 Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001.

6 7 Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, and other products.

Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000. Honda has three joint-ventures in China Honda China, Dongfeng Honda, and Guangqi Honda. In 2013, Honda invested about 5. 8 billion of its revenues in research and development. They have also ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.

9 Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. 1 History 2 Corporate profile and divisions 3 Products 3. 1 Automobiles 3. 2 Motorcycles 3. 4 Power equipment 3. 7 Aircraft 3. 8 Mountain bikes 4 Former products 4. 1 Solar cells 5 Motorsports 5. 1 Automobiles 5.

2 Motorcycles 6 Electric and alternative fuel vehicles 6. 1 Compressed natural gas 6. 2 Flexible-fuel 6. 3 Hybrid electric 6. 4 Hydrogen fuel cell 6. 5 Plug-in electric vehicles 7 Marketing 7. 2 International marketing 7. 3 Sports 8 Facilities partial list 9 US sales 10 Production numbers 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links.

Throughout his life, Honda s founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles. 1 Japanese marketing 7. He worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he tuned cars and entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki Eastern Sea Precision Machine Company to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. 11 After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products.

11 After attending engineering school without graduating, and visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota s quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ even unskilled wartime laborers. Tōkai Seiki was placed under the control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry called the Ministry of Munitions after 1943 at the start of World War II, and Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40 stake in the company.

11 Honda also aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers. 11 The relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for 450,000 and used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946.

11 A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki s Yamashita plant in 1944, and the Itawa plant collapsed on 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m 2 170 sq ft shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 iqoption api documentation Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.

11 12 19 14 When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, and supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. 11 14 This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound the engine made. 11 In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for 1,000,000, or about US 5,000 today; these funds were used to incorporate Honda Motor Co. 12 21 At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, and Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda s technical bent.

12 21 The close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. 13 15 In 1961, Honda achieved its first Grand Prix victories and World Championships in 125cc and 250cc. 16 Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world s largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964.

The first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. 17 Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 iqoption api documentation engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket. 18 The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963.

Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda s motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the iqoption api documentation. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market. The year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing.

CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda; owing to health issues, Irimajiri would resign in 1992. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself quickly being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.

Kawamoto acted quickly to change Honda s corporate culture, rushing through market-driven product development that resulted in recreational vehicles such as the first-generation Odyssey and the CR-V, and a refocusing away from some of the numerous sedans and coupes that were popular with the company s engineers but not with the buying public. Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeover by Mitsubishi Motors, which at the time was a larger automaker by volume and was flush with profits from its successful Pajero and Diamante models.

The most shocking change to Honda came when Kawamoto ended the company s successful participation in Formula One after the 1992 season, citing costs in light of the takeover threat from Mitsubishi as well as the desire to create a more environmentally friendly company image. The Honda Aircraft Company as established in 2006 as a wholly owned subsidiary to manufacture and sell the HondaJet family of aircraft.

On 23 February 2015, Honda announced that CEO and President Takanobu Ito would step down and be replaced by Takahiro Hachigo by June; additional retirements by senior managers and directors were expected. 23 24 The first deliveries to customers began in December 2015. In October 2019, Honda was reported to be in talks with Hitachi to merge the two companies car parts businesses, creating a components supplier with almost 17 billion in annual sales.

In January 2020, Honda announced that it would be withdrawing employees working in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 28 Due to the global spread of the virus, Honda became the first major automaker with operations in the US to suspend production in its factories on March 23, 2020. It resumed automobile, engine and transmission production at its US plants on May 11, 2020.

Honda and General Motors announced in September 2020 a North American alliance to begin in 2021. 30 According to The Detroit Free Press, The proposed alliance will include sharing a range of vehicles, to be sold under each company s distinct brands, as well as cooperation in purchasing, research and development, and connected services. Their shares trade on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, as well as exchanges in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kyoto, Fukuoka, London, Paris, and Switzerland.

Honda is headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. The company has assembly plants around the globe. These plants are located in China, the United States, Pakistan, Canada, England, Japan, Belgium, Brazil, México, New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey, Taiwan, Perú and Argentina. 2 percent a year earlier. As of July 2010, 89 percent of Honda and Acura vehicles sold in the United States were built in North American plants, up from 82.

This shields profits from the yen s advance to a 15-year high against the dollar. American Honda Motor Company is based in Torrance, California. Honda Racing Corporation HRC is Honda s motorcycle racing division. Honda Canada Inc. is headquartered in Markham, Ontario, 33 it was originally planned to be located in Richmond Hill, Ontario, but delays led them to look elsewhere.

Their manufacturing division, Honda of Canada Manufacturing, is based in Alliston, Ontario. Honda has also created joint ventures around the world, such as Honda Siel Cars and Hero Honda Motorcycles in India, 34 Guangzhou Honda and Dongfeng Honda in China, Boon Siew Honda in Malaysia and Honda Atlas in Pakistan. The company also runs a business innovation initiative called Honda Xceleratorin order to build relationships with innovators, partner with Silicon Valley startups and entrepreneurs, and help other companies work on prototypes.

Xcelerator had worked with reportedly 40 companies as of January 2019. Xcelerator and a developer studio are part of the Honda Innovations group, formed in Spring 2017 and based in Mountain View, California. Following the Japanese earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, Honda announced plans to halve production at its UK plants. 36 The decision was made to put staff at the Swindon plant on a 2-day week until the end of May as the manufacturer struggled to source supplies from Japan.

It s thought around 22,500 cars were produced during this period. For the fiscal year 2018, Honda reported earnings of US 9. 534 billion, with an annual revenue of US 138. 250 billion, an increase of 6. 2 over the previous fiscal cycle. Honda s shares traded at over 32 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at US 50.

Year Revenue in mil. 4 billion in October 2018. US Net income in mil. US Total assets in mil. Honda s Net Sales and Other Operating Revenue by Geographical Regions in 2007 iqoption api documentation. US Employees 2005 77,851 4,376 83,853 2006 89,172 5,373 95,145 2007 99,784 5,331 108,329 2008 108,026 5,400 113,540 2009 100,112 1,370 118,189 2010 92,655 3,052 125,594 2011 107,242 6,762 138,851 2012 100,941 2,820 149,616 2013 119,523 4,443 164,988 190,338 2014 118,425 5,741 156,220 198,561 2015 121,286 4,636 167,675 204,730 2016 121,190 2,860 151,303 208,399 2017 130,193 5,734 176,311 211,915 2018 138,250 9,534 174,143 215,638.

Geographic Region Total revenue in millions of Japan 1,681,190 North America 5,980,876 Europe 1,236,757 Asia 1,283,154 Others 905,163. Honda s automotive manufacturing ambitions can be traced back to 1963, with the Honda T360, a kei car truck built for the Japanese market. 39 This was followed by the two-door roadster, the Honda S500 also introduced in 1963. In 1965, Honda built a two-door commercial delivery van, called the Honda L700. Honda s first four-door sedan was not the Accord, but the air-cooled, four-cylinder, gasoline-powered Honda 1300 in 1969.

That was the Honda N360, another Kei car that was adapted for international sale as the N600. The Civic was a hatchback that gained wide popularity internationally, but it wasn t the first two-door hatchback built. The Civic, which appeared in 1972 and replaced the N600 also had a smaller sibling that replaced the air-cooled N360, called the Honda Life that was water-cooled.

The Honda Life represented Honda s efforts in competing in the kei car segment, offering sedan, delivery van and small pick-up platforms on a shared chassis. The Life StepVan had a novel approach that, while not initially a commercial success, appears to be an influence in vehicles with the front passengers sitting behind the engine, a large cargo area with a flat roof and a liftgate installed in back, and utilizing a transversely installed engine with a front-wheel-drive powertrain.

As Honda entered into automobile manufacturing in the late 1960s, where Japanese manufacturers such as Toyota and Nissan had been making cars since before WWII, it appears that Honda instilled a sense of doing things a little differently than its Japanese competitors. Its mainstay products, like the Accord and Civic with the exception of its USA-market 1993 97 Passport which was part of a vehicle exchange program with Isuzu part of the Subaru-Isuzu joint venturehave always employed front-wheel-drive powertrain implementation, which is currently a long-held Honda tradition.

Honda also installed new technologies into their products, first as optional equipment, then later standard, like anti lock brakes, speed sensitive power steering, and multi-port fuel injection in the early 1980s. This desire to be the first to try new approaches is evident with the creation of the first Japanese luxury chain Acura, and was also evident with the all aluminum, mid-engined sports car, the Honda NSX, which also introduced variable valve timing technology, Honda calls VTEC.

The Civic is a line of compact cars developed and manufactured by Honda. In North America, the Civic is the second-longest continuously running nameplate from a Japanese manufacturer; only its perennial rival, the Toyota Corolla, introduced in 1968, has been in production longer. 40 The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda s vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s when the model lineup was expanded. Having gone through several generational changes, the Civic has become larger and more upmarket, and it currently slots between the Fit and Accord.

Honda produces Civic hybrid, a hybrid electric vehicle that competes with the Toyota Prius, and also produces the Insight and CR-Z. In 2008, Honda increased global production to meet the demand for small cars and hybrids in the U. and emerging markets. The company shuffled U. production to keep factories busy and boost car output while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles as light truck sales fell. Its first entrance into the pickup segment, the light-duty Ridgeline, won Truck of the Year from Motor Trend magazine in 2006.

Also in 2006, the redesigned Civic won Car of the Year from the magazine, giving Honda a rare double win of Motor Trend honors. It is reported that Honda plans to increase hybrid sales in Japan to more than 20 of its total sales in the fiscal year 2011, from 14. 8 in the previous year. Five of United States Environmental Protection Agency s top ten most fuel-efficient cars from 1984 to 2010 comes from Honda, more than any other automakers.

The five models are 2000 2006 Honda Insight 53 mpg US or 4. 4 L 100 km or 64 mpg imp combined1986 1987 Honda Civic Coupe HF 46 mpg US or 5. 1 L 100 km or 55 mpg imp combined1994 1995 Honda Civic hatchback VX 43 mpg US or 5. 5 L 100 km or 52 mpg imp combined2006 Honda Civic Hybrid 42 mpg US or 5. 6 L 100 km or 50 mpg imp combinedand 2010 Honda Insight 41 mpg US or 5. 7 L 100 km or 49 mpg imp combined. 43 The ACEEE has also rated the Civic GX as the greenest car in America for seven consecutive years.

Honda currently builds vehicles in factories located in Japan, the United States of America, Canada, China, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Brazil, Indonesia, India, Thailand, Turkey, Argentina, Mexico, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Honda is the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Japan and has been since it started production in 1955. 11 At its peak in 1982, Honda manufactured almost three million motorcycles annually.

By 2006 this figure had reduced to around 550,000 but was still higher than its three domestic competitors. In 2017, India became the largest motorcycle market of Honda. 45 In India, Honda is leading in the scooters segment, with 59 percent market share. During the 1960s, when it was a small manufacturer, Honda broke out of the Japanese motorcycle market and began exporting to the U.

Working with the advertising agency Grey Advertising, Honda created an innovative marketing campaign, using the slogan You meet the nicest people on a Honda. In contrast to the prevailing negative stereotypes of motorcyclists in America as tough, antisocial rebels, this campaign suggested that Honda motorcycles were made for the everyman.

The campaign was hugely successful; the ads ran for three years, and by the end of 1963 alone, Honda had sold 90,000 motorcycles. and around the world has been the subject of some academic controversy. Taking Honda s story as an archetype of the smaller manufacturer entering a new market already occupied by highly dominant competitors, the story of their market entry, and their subsequent huge success in the U. Competing explanations have been advanced to explain Honda s strategy and the reasons for their success.

The first of these explanations was put forward when, in 1975, Boston Consulting Group BCG was commissioned by the UK government to write a report explaining why and how the British motorcycle industry had been out-competed by its Japanese competitors. The report concluded that the Japanese firms, including Honda, had sought a very high scale of production they had made a large number of motorbikes in order to benefit from economies of scale and learning curve effects.

It blamed the decline of the British motorcycle industry on the failure of British managers to invest enough in their businesses to profit from economies of scale and scope. The second explanation was offered in 1984 by Richard Pascale, who had interviewed the Honda executives responsible for the firm s entry into the U. As opposed to the tightly focused strategy of low cost and high scale that BCG accredited to Honda, Pascale found that their entry into the U.

market was a story of miscalculation, serendipity, and organizational learning in other words, Honda s success was due to the adaptability and hard work of its staff, rather than any long-term strategy. 49 For example, Honda s initial plan on entering the US was to compete in large motorcycles, around 300 cc. Honda s motorcycles in this class suffered performance and reliability problems when ridden the relatively long distances of the US highways.

12 41 43 When the team found that the scooters they were using to get themselves around their U. base of San Francisco attracted positive interest from consumers that they fell back on selling the Super Cub instead. The most recent school of thought on Honda s strategy was put forward by Gary Hamel and C. Prahalad in 1989. Creating the concept of core competencies with Honda as an example, they argued that Honda s success was due to its focus on leadership in the technology of internal combustion engines.

Honda s entry into the U. motorcycle market during the 1960s is used as a case study for teaching introductory strategy at business schools worldwide. Honda builds utility ATVs under models Recon, Rubicon, Rancher, Foreman and Rincon. 50 For example, the high power-to-weight ratio engines Honda produced for its racing bikes provided technology and expertise which was transferable into mopeds. Honda also builds sports ATVs under the models TRX 90X, TRX 250X, TRX 400x, TRX 450R and TRX 700.

Power equipment. Production started in 1953 with H-type engine prior to motorcycle. Honda power equipment reached record sales in 2007 with 6. 4 million units. 54 By 2010 Fiscal year ended 31 March this figure had decreased to 4,7 million units. 55 Cumulative production of power products has exceeded 85 million units as of September 2008. Honda power equipment includes. Engine Cultivator Lawn mower Robotic lawn mower Riding mower Trimmer Mower Blower Sprayer Hedge trimmer Snowthrower Generator, welding power supply Pump Outboard engine Inflatable boat Electric 4-wheel Scooter Compact Household Cogeneration Unit.

Honda engines powered the entire 33-car starting field of the 2010 Indianapolis 500 57 and for the fifth consecutive race, there were no engine-related retirements during the running of the Memorial Day Classic. In the 1980s Honda developed the GY6 engine for use in motor scooters. Although no longer manufactured by Honda it is still commonly used in many Chinese, Korean and Taiwanese light vehicles. Honda, despite being known as an engine company, has never built a V8 for passenger vehicles.

In the late 1990s, the company resisted considerable pressure from its American dealers for a V8 engine which would have seen use in top-of-the-line Honda SUVs and Acuraswith American Honda reportedly sending one dealer a shipment of V8 beverages to silence them. 60 Honda considered starting V8 production in the mid-2000s for larger Acura sedans, a new version of the high-end NSX sports car which previously used DOHC V6 engines with VTEC to achieve its high power output and possible future ventures into the American full-size truck and SUV segment for both the Acura and Honda brands, but this was canceled in late 2008, with Honda citing environmental and worldwide economic conditions as reasons for the termination of this project.

ASIMO is the part of Honda s Research Development robotics program. It is the eleventh in a line of successive builds starting in 1986 with Honda E0 moving through the ensuing Honda E series and the Honda P series. Weighing 54 kilograms and standing 130 centimeters tall, ASIMO resembles a small astronaut wearing a backpack, and can walk on two feet in a manner resembling human locomotion, at up to 6 km h 3.

ASIMO is the world s only humanoid robot able to ascend and descend stairs independently. Honda s robot ASIMO see below as an R D project brings together expertise to create a robot that walks, dances and navigates steps. 62 However, human motions such as climbing stairs are difficult to mimic with a machine, which ASIMO has demonstrated by taking two plunges off a staircase.

2010 marks the year Honda has developed a machine capable of reading a user s brainwaves to move ASIMO. The system uses a helmet covered with electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy sensors that monitor electrical brainwaves and cerebral blood flow signals that alter slightly during the human thought process. The user thinks of one of a limited number of gestures it wants from the robot, which has been fitted with a Brain-Machine Interface. Honda has also pioneered new technology in its HA-420 HondaJet, manufactured by its subsidiary Honda Aircraft Company, which allows new levels of reduced drag, increased aerodynamics and fuel efficiency thus reducing operating costs.

Mountain bikes. Honda has also built a downhill racing bicycle known as the Honda RN-01. It is not available for sale to the public. The bike has a gearbox, which replaces the standard derailleur found on most bikes. Honda has hired several people to pilot the bike, among them Greg Minnaar. The team is known as Team G Cross Honda. Solar cells. Honda s solar cell subsidiary company Honda Soltec Headquarters Kikuchi-gun, Kumamoto; President and CEO Akio Kazusa started sales throughout Japan of thin-film solar cells for public and industrial use on 24 October 2008, after selling solar cells for residential use since October 2007.

65 Honda announced in the end of October 2013 that Honda Soltec would cease the business operation except for support for existing customers in Spring 2014 and the subsidiary would be dissolved. Honda has been active in motorsports, like Formula One, the Motorcycle Grand Prix and others. Honda entered Formula One as a constructor for the first time in the 1964 season at the German Grand Prix with Ronnie Bucknum at the wheel.

67 1965 saw the addition of Richie Ginther to the team, who scored Honda s first point at the Belgian Grand Prix, and Honda s first win at the Mexican Grand Prix. 1967 saw their next win at the Italian Grand Prix with John Surtees as their driver. In 1968, Jo Schlesser was killed in a Honda RA302 at the French Grand Prix. This racing tragedy, coupled with their commercial difficulties selling automobiles in the United States, prompted Honda to withdraw from all international motorsport that year.

After a learning year in 1965, Honda-powered Brabhams dominated the 1966 French Formula Two championship in the hands of Jack Brabham and Denny Hulme. In the early 1980s Honda returned to F2, supplying engines to Ron Tauranac s Ralt team. As there was no European Championship that season, this was the top F2 championship that year.

Tauranac had designed the Brabham cars for their earlier involvement. They were again extremely successful. In a related exercise, John Judd s Engine Developments company produced a turbo Brabham-Honda engine for use in IndyCar racing. It won only one race, in 1988 for Bobby Rahal at Pocono. Honda returned to Formula One in 1983, initially with another Formula Two partner, the Spirit team, before switching abruptly to Williams in 1984.

Between 1986 and 1991, Honda won six consecutive Formula One Constructors Championships as an engine manufacturer, as well as five consecutive Drivers Championships with Nelson Piquet, Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost. Honda switched allegiance to McLaren in 1988, and then won the title in 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991. Williams-Honda won the crown in 1986 and 1987.

Honda withdrew from Formula One at the end of 1992, although the related Mugen company maintained a presence up to the end of 2000, winning four races with Ligier and Jordan. Honda debuted in the CART IndyCar World Series as a works supplier in 1994. The engines were far from competitive at first, but after development, the company won six consecutive drivers championships and four manufacturers championships between 1996 and 2001.

In 2003, Honda transferred its effort to the IRL IndyCar Series with Ilmor supporting HPD. In 2004, Honda-powered cars overwhelmingly dominated the IndyCar Series, winning 14 of 16 IndyCar races, including the Indianapolis 500, and claimed the IndyCar Series Manufacturers Championship, Drivers Championship and Rookie of the Year titles.

From 2006 to 2011, Honda was the lone engine supplier for the IndyCar Series, including the Indianapolis 500. In the 2006 Indianapolis 500, for the first time in Indianapolis 500 history, the race was run without a single engine problem. 68 Since 2012, HPD has constructed turbocharged V6 engines for its IndyCar effort, winning four Indianapolis 500s, two manufacturers championships and two drivers championships.

During 1998, Honda considered returning to Formula One with their own team. The project was aborted after the death of its technical director, Harvey Postlethwaite. Honda instead came back as an official engine supplier to British American Racing BARand briefly to Jordan Grand Prix. Together BAR and Honda achieved 15 podium finishes and second place in the 2004 constructors championship. Honda bought a stake in the BAR team in 2004 before buying the team outright at the end of 2005, becoming a constructor for the first time since the 1960s.

Honda won the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix with driver Jenson Button. 69 Honda announced in December 2008, that it would be exiting Formula One with immediate effect due to the 2008 global economic crisis. Honda has competed in the British Touring Car Championship since 1995, though not always as a works team. They have achieved over 170 race victories, seven drivers championships, five manufacturers championships and seven teams championships, ranking second with most wins in the series.

71 Honda also won the World Touring Car Championship in 2013. Honda made an official announcement on 16 May 2013 that it planned to re-enter into Formula One in 2015 as an engine supplier to McLaren. 73 After a fairly successful season with Toro Rosso, Honda made a deal to also supply Red Bull Racing. 72 On 15 September 2017, after a winless campaign spanning three seasons and achieving a best finish of fifth place, McLaren and Honda announced their split, with the latter going on to sign a multi-year deal to supply Toro Rosso, the junior team of Red Bull Racing.

Max Verstappen scored Honda s first win of the V6 turbo-hybrid era at the Austrian Grand Prix. Honda Racing Corporation HRC was formed in 1982. The company combines participation in motorcycle races throughout the world with the development of high potential racing machines. HRC also contributes to the advancement of motorcycle sports through a range of activities that include sales of production racing motorcycles, support for satellite teams, and rider education programs.

Its racing activities are an important source for the creation of leading-edge technologies used in the development of Honda motorcycles. Soichiro Honda, being a race driver himself, could not stay out of international motorsport. In 1959, Honda entered five motorcycles into the Isle of Man TT race, the most prestigious motorcycle race in the world. While always having powerful engines, it took until 1961 for Honda to tune their chassis well enough to allow Mike Hailwood to claim their first Grand Prix victories in the 125 and 250 cc classes.

Hailwood would later pick up their first Senior TT wins in 1966 and 1967. Honda s race bikes were known for their sleek stylish design and exotic engine configurations, such as the 5-cylinder, 22,000 rpm, 125 cc bike and their 6-cylinder 250 cc and 297 cc bikes. In 1979, Honda returned to Grand Prix motorcycle racing with the monocoque-framed, four-stroke NR500.

The FIM rules limited engines to four cylinders, so the NR500 had non-circular, race-trackcylinders, each with 8 valves and two connecting rods, in order to provide sufficient valve area to compete with the dominant two-stroke racers. For the 1982 season, Honda debuted its first two-stroke race bike, the NS500 and in 1983, Honda won their first 500 cc Grand Prix World Championship with Freddie Spencer.

Since then, Honda has become a dominant marque in motorcycle Grand Prix racing, winning a plethora of top-level titles with riders such as Mick Doohan and Valentino Rossi. Unfortunately, it seemed Honda tried to accomplish too much at one time and the experiment failed. Honda also head the number of wins at the Isle of Man TT having notched up 227 victories in the solo classes and Sidecar TT, 75 including Ian Hutchinson s clean sweep at the 2010 races. The outright lap record on the Snaefell Mountain Course was held by Honda, set at the 2015 TT by John McGuinness at an average speed of 132.

562 km h on a Honda CBR1000RR, 77 bettered the next year by Michael Dunlop on a BMW S1000RR at 133. In the Motocross World Championship, Honda has claimed six world championships. In the World Enduro Championship, Honda has captured eight titles, most recently with Stefan Merriman in 2003 and with Mika Ahola from 2007 to 2010. In motorcycle trials, Honda has claimed three world championships with Belgian rider Eddy Lejeune. Compressed natural gas. The Honda Civic GX was for a long time the only purpose-built natural gas vehicle NGV commercially available in some parts of the U.

79 80 The Honda Civic GX first appeared in 1998 as a factory-modified Civic LX that had been designed to run exclusively on compressed natural gas. The car looks and drives just like a contemporary Honda Civic LX, but does not run on gasoline. In 2001, the Civic GX was rated the cleanest-burning internal combustion engine in the world by the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA. Before that, only fleets were eligible to purchase a new Civic GX. In 2006, the Civic GX was released in New York, making it the second state where the consumer is able to buy the car.

In June 2015, Honda announced its decision to phase out the commercialization of natural-gas powered vehicles to focus on the development of a new generation of electrified vehicles such as hybrids, plug-in electric cars and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Since 2008, Honda has sold about 16,000 natural-gas vehicles, mainly to taxi and commercial fleets. Honda s Brazilian subsidiary launched flexible-fuel versions for the Honda Civic and Honda Fit in late 2006. As other Brazilian flex-fuel vehicles, these models run on any blend of hydrous ethanol E100 and E20-E25 gasoline.

85 86 Initially, and in order to test the market preferences, the carmaker decided to produce a limited share of the vehicles with flex-fuel engines, 33 percent of the Civic production and 28 percent of the Fit models. 86 87 88 In July 2009, Honda launched in the Brazilian market its third flexible-fuel car, the Honda City. 85 86 Also, the sale price for the flex-fuel version was higher than the respective gasoline versions, around US 1,000 premium for the Civic, and US 650 for the Fit, despite the fact that all other flex-fuel vehicles sold in Brazil had the same tag price as their gasoline versions.

During the last two months of 2006, both flex-fuel models sold 2,427 cars against 8,546 gasoline-powered automobiles, 90 jumping to 41,990 flex-fuel cars in 2007, 91 and reaching 93,361 in 2008. First leased to the City of Los Angeles, in 2005, Honda started offering the GX directly to the public through factory trained dealers certified to service the GX.

92 Due to the success of the flex versions, by early 2009 a hundred percent of Honda s automobile production for the Brazilian market is now flexible-fuel, and only a small percentage of gasoline version is produced in Brazil for exports. Produced by its Brazilian subsidiary Moto Honda da Amazônia, the CG 150 Titan Mix is sold for around US 2,700.

In March 2009, Honda launched in the Brazilian market the first flex-fuel motorcycle in the world. Hybrid electric. In late 1999, Honda launched the first commercial hybrid electric car sold in the U. market, the Honda Insight, just one month before the introduction of the Toyota Prius, and initially sold for US 20,000. 97 98 The first-generation Insight was produced from 2000 to 2006 and had a fuel economy of 70 miles per US gallon 3. 4 L 100 km; 84 mpg imp for the EPA s highway rating, the most fuel-efficient mass-produced car at the time.

97 98 Total global sales for the Insight amounted to only around 18,000 vehicles. 98 Cumulative global sales reached 100,000 hybrids in 2005 and 200,000 in 2007. Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in Japan in February 2009, and released it in other markets through 2009 and in the U. market in April 2009. At 19,800 as a five-door hatchback it will be the least expensive hybrid available in the U.

Since 2002, Honda has also been selling the Honda Civic Hybrid 2003 model in the U. 97 It was followed by the Honda Accord Hybrid, offered in model years 2005 through 2007. Sales of the Honda CR-Z began in Japan in February 2010, becoming Honda s third hybrid electric car in the market. 101 As of February 2011 updateHonda was producing around 200,000 hybrids a year in Japan.

Sales of the Fit Hybrid began in Japan in October 2010, at the time, the lowest price for a gasoline-hybrid electric vehicle sold in the country. 103 The European version, called Honda Jazz Hybrid, was released in early 2011. 104 During 2011 Honda launched three hybrid models available only in Japan, the Fit Shuttle Hybrid, Freed Hybrid and Freed Spike Hybrid. Honda s cumulative global hybrid sales passed the 1 million unit milestone at the end of September 2012, 12 years and 11 months after sales of the first generation Insight began in Japan November 1999.

105 106 As of June 2014 updateHonda has sold more than 1. 35 million hybrids worldwide. Hydrogen fuel cell. In Takanezawa, Japan, on 16 June 2008, Honda Motors produced the first assembly-line FCX Clarity, a hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. More efficient than a gas-electric hybrid vehicle, the FCX Clarity combines hydrogen and oxygen from ordinary air to generate electricity for an electric motor.

In July 2014 Honda announced the end of production of the Honda FCX Clarity for the 2015 model. The vehicle itself does not emit any pollutants and its only by-products are heat and water. The FCX Clarity also has an advantage over gas-electric hybrids in that it does not use an internal combustion engine to propel itself. Like a gas-electric hybrid, it uses a lithium ion battery to assist the fuel cell during acceleration and capture energy through regenerative braking, thus improving fuel efficiency.

99 A total of 187,851 hybrids were sold worldwide in 2013, and 158,696 hybrids during the first six months of 2014. The lack of hydrogen filling stations throughout developed countries will keep production volumes low.