Iq option é bom
Those living in the most deprived areas spend nearly a third of their lives in poor health, compared with only about a sixth for those in the least deprived areas. Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy are widening as a result of greater gains in life expectancy in least deprived populations. Between 2013 15 and 2016 18, the difference in life expectancy between the most and least deprived areas in England widened by 0.
4 years among males and 0. 5 years among females. Among females living in the most deprived areas life expectancy fell by 95 days over this period, in contrast to the gain of 80 days among females in the least deprived areas. While mortality has declined everywhere, there is a persistent north south divide in life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, with people in southern regions on average living longer and with more years in good health than those living further north.
For example, in 2016 18, life expectancy for males was lowest in Blackpool and Middlesbrough, and highest in Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster, with a difference of about nine years. In 2016 18, males in the least deprived 10 per cent of areas in England could expect to live to 83. For females, life expectancy was lowest in Blackpool and Manchester and highest in Camden and Kensington and Chelsea, with a difference of about seven years.
The gap in years lived in good health across local authorities in England is even greater, about 18 years for males and females. About 14 per cent of the population of England is non-white. Life expectancy data is not available by ethnic group because ethnicity is not recorded at death registration. Using alternative methods of analysing ethnic differences, some evidence suggests most Black, Asian and minority ethnic BAME groups have lower mortality than the white population, but that differential has been reversed by the higher mortality among BAME groups from Covid-19.
Some population groups have significantly shorter life expectancy than the general population. For example, homeless males and females live 31 years and 38 years fewer years respectively than males and females on average. The slowdown in mortality improvements after 2011. 2011 marked a turning point in long-term mortality trends, with improvements tailing off after decades of steady decline. People with learning disabilities also have shorter lives than the average, by 23 years among males and 27 years among females.
In the 100 years to 2010 12, life expectancy increased by nearly three years every decade, but between 2011 and 2019 it increased by only 0. 6 years for females, having virtually flat-lined between 2014 18. 8 years for males and 0. However, in 2019 life expectancy increased by 0. 3 years in males and 0. 4 years in females and in January March 2020, before the Covid-19 pandemic took effect, mortality was again at the lower level seen in 2019.
The life expectancy gains in 2019 and the fall in mortality in early 2020 are associated with mild flu seasons and troughs in winter mortality. In England there were 495,000 deaths in 2015, about 31,000 more than the preceding five-year average; deaths associated with flu were estimated at about 28,000. One year deserves special mention 2015, when life expectancy fell across virtually all of Europe.
Life expectancy fell by 0. 2 years over the preceding year in both males and females unprecedented for decades. As in Europe, most excess deaths occurred early in the year and among older people, with deaths from respiratory disease including flu and pneumonia being a key contributor to the largest annual rise in deaths since the 1960s. The slowdown in life expectancy improvements, and the Office for National Statistics announcement that the mortality rate in England in quarter one of 2018 was higher than in any quarter one since 2009, prompted the Department of Health and Social Care to ask Public Health England to undertake a review of mortality trends in England.
The review found that improvements in life expectancy had slowed in most areas of England and among all socio-economic groups, but the slowdown was greater among the most deprived groups and inequalities had widened. Slowing mortality improvements among people aged 50 years and over played a significant role. How does the UK compare with other European countries. In 2018, life expectancy at birth varied by 11. 1 years for males and 7. 7 years for females across the 28 European Union EU countries1 UK was in the EU then.
Generally, western, northern and southern European countries had higher life expectancies than central and eastern European countries. In 2018 the UK ranked 10th among the 28 EU countries for male life expectancy and only 17th and below the EU average for female life expectancy Figures 3 and 4with Denmark being the only western European country to have lower female life expectancy. For males in the UK, life expectancy was 1. Women outlive men in all EU countries.
7 years less than the highest seen in the EU Italy and Sweden and for females it was 3. 2 years shorter than the highest Spain. As in the UK, improvements in mortality, and therefore life expectancy, have slowed in many European countries in recent years. However, the slowdown has been greater in UK than in most other EU countries. The periodic spikes in excess deaths in some recent winters, especially among older people, show similar patterns across the UK and several European countries, and, according to official agencies are associated with flu and cold spells.
In particular, as in the UK, European agencies reported increased mortality in 2015 that disproportionately affected older people, especially women. Compared with 2014, in 2015 life expectancy fell in 23 of the 28 EU countries for females and in 16 EU countries for males see Figures 5 and 6. European monitoring agencies report that this widespread fall in life expectancy resulted from excess winter mortality associated with flu.
Data on life expectancy that is comparable to European countries is available for UK, not England and Wales or England. Why have improvements in life expectancy slowed down. The reasons for these trends are unclear and have been hotly debated. Several studies attributed both the 2015 fall in life expectancy and the slowdown in mortality improvements after 2011 to the consequences of austerity-driven constraints on health, social care and other public spending and their impact on services.
ref 1 6 These studies were often based on statistical associations, for example, between mortality trends and the slowdown in spending on health and social care, increased waiting times, rising numbers of delayed discharges from hospital and cuts in welfare benefits. Others acknowledge that austerity could have had negative consequences on the quality of care, resulting in some excess deaths, but they suggest that statistical associations don t prove causality and there could be other explanations for the large numbers of extra deaths.
For example, the growing complexity of medical conditions in an ageing population, and the contribution of decelerating improvements in cardiovascular disease CVD mortality and periodic bad flu seasons to the decelerating mortality improvements seen in many high-income countries. Moreover, some European countries that didn t adopt austerity policies also experienced slowdowns in life expectancy improvements eg, Germany and Swedenwhile life expectancy increased in others that introduced severe austerity measures eg Spain, Ireland, Greece.
Public Health England s review identified some of the factors contributing to slowing improvements in life expectancy increasing numbers of older people vulnerable to flu and other winter risks, slowing improvements in mortality from heart disease and stroke, widening inequalities and rising death rates from accidental poisoning among younger adults mainly due to drug misuse.
It noted that the slowdown in mortality improvements is occurring across much of the population, at a time when health and social care services have been facing increasing demand and unprecedented financial pressures. The slowdown in improvements in life expectancy seen in the UK has also been seen also in many European countries, but it has been greatest in the UK.
It s likely that there are several reasons for the current trends, some specific to the UK such as widening inequalities and some common to the UK and other European countries such as the swings in flu-related mortality and slowdown in CVD mortality improvements in some countries. What impact will Covid-19 have on life expectancy. After a mild 2020 winter and flu season with low mortality, the first deaths from Covid-19 occurred in early March 2020 and the numbers increased sharply thereafter.
Between week ending 13 March 2020 and 12 June 2020, there were 48,218 deaths in England and Wales attributed to Covid-19, and 59,138 excess deaths overall ie, the difference between the number of deaths in 2020 compared with the average for the same period in the previous five years. Covid-19 thus accounted for 82 per cent of overall excess deaths during this period; the remaining 10,920 deaths resulted from a combination of undiagnosed Covid-19 deaths and non-Covid deaths resulting from other causes because of, eg, reduced uptake of health care for potentially life-threatening conditions, causing an increase in deaths from other causes.
To give an idea of scale Covid-19 is now the third leading cause of death, causing more deaths in about three months than the numbers who die in a year from heart disease or lung cancer or stroke. Predicting the impact of Covid-19 on life expectancy is difficult for several reasons including, for example, the following. The large numbers of deaths that Covid-19 has caused, or hastened, among people with pre-existing conditions and frail older people may be counter-balanced by fewer deaths in future.
However, this will not become clear for a while and is not a certainty For example, men and women in England aged 75 can expect to live another 12 years and 13 years respectively, and at age 85 it s 6 years and 7 years respectively. So, deaths even at older ages can shorten lives by several years. Some excess deaths could be offset by fewer deaths from, eg, air pollution and transport accidents. Finally, the pandemic isn t over and much depends on its impact directly and indirectly on deaths from other causes on mortality in the months ahead.
The scale of excess mortality associated with Covid-19 thus far, and evidence that many lives have been cut short eg, almost 11 per cent of Covid-19 deaths were among people aged under 65 yearsis unprecedented in recent decades. The wider socio-economic impacts of the pandemic could also have an adverse impact on health and mortality overall, particularly among more deprived and minority ethnic groups who already experience disproportionately higher mortality from Covid-19.
The overall impact that this pandemic is likely to have on life expectancy in 2020 will become clearer in due course. As the number of deaths associated with Covid-19 in the UK is among the highest in Europe and as the UK already trails many European countries in terms of life expectancy, we could see UK slide further down life expectancy league tables. Some of the direct and indirect effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on population health and mortality in the UK could last beyond 2020.
Subscribe to our email newsletter and follow TheKingsFund on Twitter to see new content as it s published, along with our other news. Hiam L, Dorling D, Harrison D, McKee M 2017. What caused the spike in mortality in England and Wales in January 2015. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol 110, no 4, pp 131 7, doi 10. journalCode jrsb accessed on 23 June 2020. Why has mortality in England and Wales been increasing.
An iterative demographic analysis. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol 110, no 4, pp 153 62. 1177 0141076817693599 accessed on 23 June 2020. Loopstra R, McKee M, Katikireddi SV, Taylor-Robinson D, Barr B, Stuckler D 2016. Austerity and old-age mortality in England a longitudinal cross-local area analysis, 2007 2013. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol 109, pp 109 16. 1177 0141076816632215 accessed on 23 June 20200. Hiam L, Harrison D, McKee M, Dorling D 2018. Why is life expectancy in England and Wales stalling.
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol 72, pp 404 8. com content early 2018 02 20 jech-2017-210401 accessed on 23 June 2020. Green MA, Dorling D, Minton J, Pickett KE 2017. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol 71, pp 1068 971. com content jech 71 11 1068 accessed on 23 June 2020. Watkins J, Wulaningsih W, Da Zhou C, Marshall D, Sylianteng G, Dela Rosa P, Miguel V, Raine R, King L, Maruthappu M 2017. Could the rise in mortality rates since 2015 be explained by changes in the number of delayed discharges of NHS patients.
com content 7 11 e017722 accessed on 23 June 2020. Fordham R, Roland M 2017. Expert reaction to paper on health and social care spending and excess deaths in England. Social Media Centre website. org expert-reaction-to-paper-on-health-and-social-care-spending-and-excess-deaths-in-england accessed on 23 June 2020. Steventon A 2017.
Effects of health and social care spending constraints on mortality in England a time trend analysis. Can you really link delayed discharge to mortality. The evidence is far from clear. Blog, The Health Foundation website. uk blog can-you-really-link-delayed-discharge-mortality-evidence-far-clear Milne E 2017. Why the 120,000 deaths claim is unsupportable. com 2017 11 17 why-the-120000-deaths-claim-is-unsupportable accessed on 23 June 2020.
Raleigh VS 2018. Stalling life expectancy in the UK. BMJ 2018; 362. uk publications stalling-life-expectancy-uk accessed on 23 June 2020. Raleigh V 2019Trends in life expectancy in EU and other OECD countries Why are improvements slowing. OECD Health Working Papers, 108. 1787 223159ab-en accessed on 23 June 2020. EUROMOMO 2020. Euromomo website. eu accessed on 23 June 2020. OECD, The King s Fund 2020. Is cardiovascular disease slowing improvements in life expectancy. OECD and The King s Fund Workshop Proceedings.
Paris OECD Publishing. 1787 47a04a11-en accessed on 23 June 2020. Mortality rates in the UK why are improvements in life expectancy slowing down. Deaths from Covid-19 coronavirus how are they counted and what do they show. Is the problem of excessive winter deaths unique to the UK. Why have improvements in mortality slowed down. pamela ellis. I have been shown extreme contempt and have been lied to by York Trust, Scarborough Hospital, PHSO, North Yorkshire Police and the Coroner.
All of these are in a conspiracy re my mother s death March 2012. The mortality review not done correctly. I have spent since then investigating my mother s death. I have asked questions about the lies I have been told, about the information I have found out. November 2012 the Admitted Neglect from the Outset after my investigation report. I have never been told why. The neglect was premeditated abject cruelty for which they could not care less.
Delay tactics and lies by all of the above. My mother s life to them not worthy of a dog s. I have pleaded with all of them for the truth and dismissed by all. The Coroner could not care this is post mortem report reads nothing like the truth. CQC couldn t care less. 2012 was the worst year of mortality results. Mum only went into hospital for observation A E changed SECRETLY mum s admission reason and she was denied medical care, lost her teeth, I now believe deliberately so she couldn t eat properly.
Friday 23rd March 2012 10am Eileen desperate to go home I WAS NOT TOLD YET 3PM had mums clothes with me but a refusal to take her home. Mum was kept a prisoner to drive her to desperation to death. I am now 76 and they have taken my life by refusal to give me the truth of mum s last hours from when I left her looking very well and so pleased to see me. I feel guilty mum was being neglect under my eyes.
THEY WILL NOT TELL ME THE TRUTH. INTERNAL INVESTIGATION INTO NORTH YORKSHIRE POLICE LIES TO ME AND THE CORONER CONDONED. WHAT SORT OF LIFE ARE THE ELDERLY LIVING IN. I BELIEVE THERE IS A SYSTEMATIC CULLING OF OUR BELOVED ELDERLY AND THE CRUELTY IS GETTING WORSE. Your report does not relay anything like what family have to endure to their loved ones. Reply Link to comment. I want my comments to you made public. I will spend to my dying day to get justice for my mother by way of truth told to my family and myself.
I will be sending a report to Theresa May in the iq option é bom she is not just one of the number I have contacted to help me and hope she does not show contempt to me as all the rest of them have done. Now aged 76 as I have already commented on and I believe on the nhs OLD PEOPLES list also for limited medical treatment. Or was the age 70 re the neglect of callup for breast scan, so this disease would go unnoticed and kill many more people.
Varicose veins no-one cares and told wait until you get an ulcer then you can have treatment, this is against Consultants advice. In Reading,Berkshire our fantastic second hospital in grounds, hydrotherapy pool, heart, stroke etc. hospital, was sold and now we have a very large Tescos, a village of flats and a mosque. How could this happen when we had two hospitals for years and years, with less people,and now the Royal Berkshire Hospital, old and little, we have, which cannot cope.
Certain operations at Thatcham and elsewhere. I have not car, so no operation. People living in Bridlington, where mum lived, have to go to Scarborough Hospital, people limited money have to pay to get to Scarborough. Many situations people have to get to York under their own steam, which is a nightmare of short visit to their loved ones to get back to Bridlington.
Bridlington has a decent building hospital, most of it closed down. I have a four week delay to see my own very lovely, unusually very caring doctor, but now trying to get a Doppler test, phoned twice but dates only set for the week whenever, despite my urgency. If mum had not had me to look after her, even when she could contact a doctor, the system was so complicated even many years ago made life for her impossible.
Everything needs to be sorted in the nhs. No-one at the helm, I am heartbroken at what happened to my mother, NO-ONE CARED, NO-ONE IN CHARGE, NO-ONE TO TELL ME THE TRUTH AND THE CORONER COULD NOT CARE LESS THE POST MORTEM REPORT GIVES THE TRUTH. Even Sir Robert Francis I contacted cannot help and I feel does not want to know the truth what is happening. I never get any comments from you or what you do with my information. Or am I correct to say CULLING OF OUR ELDERLY IS SYSTEMATIC IN EVERY COUNTY.
Mum was 92 with shortterm memory. We had a good life, I kept mum smart as she always was and wanted to be. Everyday was active which she loved. Everyday was looked forward to by her. Despite the fact she lost the reason to look after herself, and remember what happened a few minutes before or where we had been for the day, mum remained sociable, loved going out, yet did not have a clue re the date, month etc. I believe the changing of mums tablets she had been on for years Atenolol to Amlodipine together with Simvastin was not good and twice the doctors and hosp asked for compatibility but both times ignored, I later found out could have had something to do with mum s harsh cough and intermittent heart pains she only went into hospital for observation for.
I could read certain interesting info from newspapers and leave it by her and she could ask me many times, what is this about, could not remember to take her tablets etc. I have a list of lies told to my by the hospital, phso, police and refusal by Coroner. The CEO of York Trust is a disgrace as he tried to bully me by telling me the case was closed when he fully knew the truth about mum s death had not been revealed. I am not a strong person, but they will never use their miserable cruel tactics of bullying and lying to break me, no matter how I am suffering, the sleepless nights, no life, the cost to the nhs they are causing by their disgusting disgraceful behaviour.
I m very sorry to hear about your experiences and your concerns about the care your mother received. The King s Fund are not able to comment on individual cases, however as we ve previously advised there are a number of organisations that may be able to offer you help and support regarding this. The Patients Association, who are independent charity that provides specialist information and advice. They can be contacted via their helpline 020 8423 8999 or by email at helpline patients-association.
I hope the above information is useful to you. Kind regards, Sarah. Life Expectancy mean average is not the appropriate measure to compare years lived in 1840 and now. In 1840, LE was disproportionately skewed by high death rates among children. The average age of adult deaths has only increased by approximately 15yrs, not 40yrs, since 1840. Much smaller gains for adults than we give ourselves credit for. LE and modal average have become aligned since 1970s as perinatal child mortality rates have more or less plateaued.
Isn t it therefore more appropriate to be using modal average to compare historical trends. Although causality is difficult to establish, the 120,000 extra deaths in UK 2010-15 BMJ - not due to ageing population, flu, or cold weather - occurred mainly in 65 s and care home residents. To my mind, this says something very clearly about changes in social care and NHS since 2010.
Neil Bendel. I d be interested to know if this work is going to look at local variations in the slow down of life expectancy. Is life expectancy slowing down in some areas more than others and, if so, why. Is the growth in life expectancy growth slower in more deprived areas or in particular types of area e. urban rural areas, coastal communities etc. This would help to identify if there are specific local factors in play as well as national drivers and which have had the biggest impact.
Our project will look at life expectancy in local areas but not until phase 2 which takes us to Spring 2019. In the meantime, you may be interested to see some ONS reports on this, if you haven t seen them already. If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to get in touch. Judy Abrahams. I am 70 years old and have just spent a year of my life waiting on pain with greatly reduced mobility for a hip replacement.
The NHS is under funded. Teresa May and her friends can easily afford private health care. What can we expect. Along with the Patient Advice and Liaison Service at your local hospital and your local Healthwatch who we understand you have already been in touch with, there is. This white paper describes the theoretical background of I Q data as well as practical considerations which make the use of I Q data in communication so desirable.
Each page in this series teaches you a specific concept related to common measurement applications by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. What is I Q Data. Put simply, I Q data shows the changes in magnitude or amplitude and phase of a sine wave. If amplitude and phase changes occur in an orderly, predetermined fashion, you can use these amplitude and phase changes to encode information upon a sine wave, a process known as modulation. Modulation changes a higher frequency carrier signal in proportion to a lower frequency message, or information, signal.
I Q data is highly prevalent in RF communications systems, and more generally in signal modulation, because it is a convenient way to modulate signals. Background on Signals I Q Data in Communication Systems So Why Use I Q Data. Related NI Products Conclusions. Background on Signals. Signal modulation changes a sine wave to encode information. The equation representing a sine wave is as follows. This white paper is part of the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page series.
Figure 1 Equation for a Sine Wave. The equation above shows that you are limited to making changes to the amplitude, frequency, and phase of a sine wave to encode information. Frequency is simply the rate of change of the phase of a sine wave frequency is the first derivative of phaseso frequency and phase of the sine wave equation can be collectively referred to as the phase angle. Therefore, we can represent the instantaneous state of a sine wave with a vector in the complex plane using amplitude magnitude and phase coordinates in a polar coordinate system.
Polar Representation of a Sine Wave. In the graphic above, the distance from the origin to the black point represents the amplitude magnitude of the sine wave, and the angle from the horizontal axis to the line represents the phase. Thus, the distance from the origin to the point remains the same as long as the amplitude of the sine wave is not changing modulating. The phase of the point changes according to the current state of the sine wave. For example, a sine wave with a frequency of 1 Hz 2π radians second rotates counter-clockwise around the origin at a rate of one revolution per second.
If the amplitude doesn t change during one revolution, the dot maps out a circle around the origin with radius equal to the amplitude along which the point travels at a rate of one cycle per second. Because phase is a relative measurement, imagine that the phase reference used is a sine wave of frequency equal to the sine wave represented by the amplitude and phase points. If the reference sine wave frequency and the plotted sine wave frequency are the same, the rate of change of the two signals phase is the same, and the rotation of the sine wave around the origin becomes stationary.
In this case, a single amplitude phase point can represent a sine wave of frequency equal to the reference frequency. Any phase rotation around the origin indicates a frequency difference between the reference sine wave and the sine wave being plotted. Up to this point, this white paper has described amplitude and phase data in a polar coordinate system.
All the concepts discussed above apply to I Q data. In fact, I Q data is merely a translation of amplitude and phase data from a polar coordinate system to a Cartesian X,Y coordinate system. Using trigonometry, you can convert the polar coordinate sine wave information into Cartesian I Q sine wave data. These two representations are equivalent and contain the same information, just in different forms. I and Q Represented in Polar Form. The figure below shows a LabVIEW example demonstrating the relationship between polar and Cartesian coordinates.
Figure 4 I Q Data in LabVIEW. This equivalence is show in Figure 3. I Q Data in Communication Systems. To explain why I Q data is used in communications systems, you must understand modulation basics. RF communication systems use advanced forms of modulation to increase the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given amount of frequency spectrum. Signal modulation can be divided into two broad categories analog modulation and digital modulation.
Analog or digital refers to how the data is modulated. If analog audio data is modulated onto a carrier sine wave, this technology is referred to as analog modulation. If analog audio data is sampled by an analog-to-digital converter ADC with the resulting digital bits modulated onto a carrier sine wave, this technology is defined as digital modulation because digital data is encoded.
Both analog modulation and digital modulation involve changing the carrier wave amplitude, frequency, or phase or combination of amplitude and phase simultaneously according to the message data. Amplitude modulation AMfrequency modulation FMor phase modulation PM are all examples of analog modulation. With amplitude modulation, the carrier sine wave amplitude is modulated according to the message signal.
The same idea holds true for frequency and phase modulation. Time Domain of AM, FM, and PM Signals. Figure 5 represents various analog techniques AM, FM, and PM applied to a carrier signal. For AM, the message signal is the blue sine wave that forms the envelope of the higher frequency carrier sine wave. As the figure illustrates, the resulting carrier signal changes between two distinct frequency states. For FM, the message data is the dashed square wave. Each frequency state represents the high and low state of the message signal.
If the message signal were a sine wave in this case, there would be a more gradual change in frequency, which would be more difficult to see. For PM, notice the distinct phase change at the edges of the dashed square wave message signal. As mentioned earlier, if only the carrier sine wave amplitude changes with respect to time proportional to the message signalas is the case with AM modulation, the I Q plane graph changes only with respect to the distance from the origin to the I Q points, as shown in the following image.
I Q Data in the Complex Domain. You cannot tell much about the message signal, only that it is amplitude modulated. Using LabVIEW s 3D graph control, we can show the third axis of time to illustrate the message signal. Representation of Magnitude vs. However, if you watch how the I Q data points vary in magnitude with respect to time, you can essentially see a representation of the message signal. Q plot in Figure 6. The magnitude of the signal trace modulates in a sinusoidal pattern, indicating that the message signal is a sine wave.
The preceding figure shows the I Q data points vary in amplitude only, with the phase fixed at 45 degrees. Figure 7 shows the same data as the 2D I vs. The green trace represents the amplitude and phase data in a polar coordinate system, while the red traces represent the projections of this waveform onto the I and Q axes, representing the individual I and Q waveforms. We can show the same type of example using PM, as shown in the following figure.
Polar Representation of Phase vs. You can tell that the message signal is phase modulated, as the amplitude is constant but the phase is changing modulating. You cannot see the shape of the message signal with respect to time, but you can see the minimum and maximum signal levels of the message signal are represented by phase deviations of -45 degrees and 45 degrees respectively.
The time axis iq option é bom be used to better understand this concept, as shown in the following figure. 3D Representation of Phase Modulation. Figure 9, shown in the LabVIEW 3D graph, shows the green trace varying in a sinusoidal fashion with respect to time. The projections onto the I and Q axes represent the individual I and Q waveforms corresponding to the PM sine wave with fixed magnitude and oscillating phase. In essence, the I Q data represents the message signal. Because the I Q data waveforms are Cartesian translations of the polar amplitude and phase waveforms, you may have trouble determining the nature of the message signal.
For example, compare the red I and Q traces on the 3D I vs. If you plot amplitude vs. Q plots in Figure 9 to the green trace in Figure 9. time for the AM sine wave, you would see the message signal. time for the AM sine wave, you would have a straight line. You would see sine waves for the I vs. time and Q vs. time waveforms as well, but the scale would be off, and this would not necessarily be the case for more complex digital modulation schemes where both amplitude and phase are modulated simultaneously.
So Why Use I Q Data. Because amplitude and phase data seem more intuitive, you might assume you should use polar amplitude and phase data instead of Cartesian I and Q data. However, practical hardware design concerns make I and Q data the better choice. Precisely varying the phase of a high-frequency carrier sine wave in a hardware circuit according to an input message signal is difficult.
A hardware signal modulator that manipulates the amplitude and phase of a carrier sine wave would therefore be expensive and difficult to design and build, and, as it turns out, not as flexible as a circuit that uses I and Q waveforms. To understand how to avoid manipulating the phase of an RF carrier directly, refer to the following I Q modulation equations.
Mathematical Background of I Q Modulation. According to the trigonometric identity shown in the first line of Figure 10, multiply both sides of the equation by A and substitute 2πf c t in place of α and φ in place of β to arrive at the equation shown in line 2. Then substitute I for A cos φ and Q for A sin φ to represent a sine wave with the equation shown on line 3. If you plot the phase data vs. Iq option é bom that the difference between a sine wave and a cosine wave of the same frequency is a 90-degree phase offset between them.
Essentially, what this fact means is that you can control the amplitude, frequency, and phase of a modulating carrier sine wave by simply manipulating the amplitudes of separate I and Q input signals. With this method, you do not need to directly vary the phase of an RF carrier sine wave. You can achieve the same effect by manipulating the amplitudes of input I and Q signals.
Figure 11 shows a block diagram of an I Q modulator. Of course, the second half of the equation is a sine wave and the first half is a cosine wave, so you must include a device in the hardware circuit to induce a 90-degree phase shift between the carrier signals used for the I and Q mixers, but this addition is a simpler design issue than the aforementioned direct phase manipulation. Hardware Diagram of an I Q Modulator. The circles with an X represent mixers devices that perform frequency multiplication and either upconvert or downconvert signals upconverting here.
The I Q modulator mixes the I waveform with the RF carrier sine wave, and it mixes the Q signal with the same RF carrier sine wave at a 90-degree phase offset. The Q signal is subtracted from the I signal just as in the equation shown in line 3 in Figure 10 producing the final RF modulated waveform. In fact, the 90-degree shift of the carrier is the source of the names for the I and Q data I refers to in-phase data because the carrier is in phase and Q refers to quadrature data because the carrier is offset by 90 degrees.
This technique is known as quadrature upconversion, and you can use the same I Q modulator for any modulation scheme. The I Q modulator is merely reacting to changes in I and Q waveform amplitudes, and I and Q data can represent any changes in magnitude and phase of a message signal. The flexibility and simplicity relative to other options of the design of an I Q modulator is why it is so widely used and popular. com rf for more information about related NI hardware and software products.
Related NI Products. This document is meant to provide a brief overview and introduction to I Q data as it relates to RF and wireless systems. For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals main page, or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals page. Additional information can also be found with Teaching and Research Resources for RF and Communications and the NI-RFSA help file. Commentaires clients. representation - 28 juil. By Ujjval Rathod, student.
the representattion of sine wave in figure 6 and 7 is bit confussing. while the sine wave is made up of complete cycle of 360 degree in the sence that complete rottion of a circle in polar form. how can we in figure 7 represent a sine wave just for 1 phase value of 45 degree. Need some more examples with some examples and pros and cons - 4 févr.
Its an excellent starter for fundamental understanding. I would like to have some more examples as well as more insight into the issues associated with this and how the industry is dealing with them as well as sources of IQ imbalance. I don t see how modulating I Q can modulate the frequency - 22 déc. By marc desmarais, Boeing. You ve shown how modulating the amplitude of the I and Q can modulate the phase and amplitude of the final carrier transmitted, but you haven t shown how frequency modulation is achieved.
Yet you state what this fact means is that you can control the amplitude, frequency, and phase of a modulating carrier sine wave by simply manipulating the amplitudes of separate I and Q input signals. Its very simple, clean and clear for the first time reader. Magnitude is equivalent to Amplitude. A c is the magnitude of the vector that represents a point on the amplitude vs. time graph, correct. Thus, A c sqrt Amplitude 2 time 2 Where Amplitude is voltage.
By Kyumyong Lee, Wave Electronics. Great Tutorial about I Q data I have ever read. simple and efficient - 4 janv. By veerasamy, Tata Elxsi. The tutorial was very useful especially the equations which proved how IQ data can be used for simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. Good job and thanks a lot. sudar - 10 juil. How can u iq option é bom amplitude freq and phase by just changing the amplitude only of the I and q signals.
But I guess this doc s scope is not the details. Its very simple, clean and clear for the first time reader - 18 févr. clarity is missing in important places. I look forward to learning the next step now that I understand the IQ basics. I ve seen the crazy IQ plots from downconverted signals and always wondered how to interpret them. I m eager for the next topic. Always a good job.
Great tutorial - 25 avr. Clear, cohincise and precise. In five minutes I finally grabbed the basics of I Q. Do keep the great tutorial work. its very useful,i was searching this details for 2 days,here u have every thing so clearly good job. Slight confusion - 1 nov. 5 the modulations shown are described as analog, whereas the FM and PM modulations have two states - are digital.
Another technical overview on generating I Q data - 27 avr. This document on I Q data is excellent. However it will be nice if there is another article on how to generate I Q data for FSK, PSK or GMSK of a message stream. Equation error typo - 4 déc. Superb article, but I believe equation 2, which was derived from equation 1 multiplied through by A, is missing the A from the right-most term. Congratulations though on an absolutely first rate piece of work. However, later in the final equation, it choses to include this A in the substitution for Q, so it ends up just being a simple typo on equation 2.
Great instruction, just one more addition - 28 juil. It is not clear from the text how do we actually can generate I and Q data from the Acos w_c t phii. e, a figure for transmitter side similar to Fig 9 for the receiver side is missing. In the discussion following Fig. I spent 20 more mins and figured out that if we simply multiply the signal by cos w_c t and -sin w_c tfollowed by a LPF, we can generate the I and Q data for transmission.
Simple and clever - 18 juin 2008. I m a telecoms engineer who almost forgot where the hell the I Q come from. With this simple and clever explanation its better to remember. By Andy Knitt, Caterpillar, Inc. Great explanation. better than most texts. Wow, finally I understand - 22 mars 2008. By Trey, Northrop Grumman. As a mechanical engineer, I ve been trying to understand this EE principle forever. Excellent easy to understand - 21 févr.
I train electronic technicians for the AF and trying to explain many concepts like. Q, FFT, and digital mod types is often difficult at best. Your text and supporting images are thorough yet simple enough that even I can understand. Now I have some great basics to use in describing these principles to new technicians. I am a student of Texas A M ,very simple to understand.
IQ is now clear for me. - 27 juin 2007. By Rudolf, hb9ari. Many thanks for the clear explanation of IQ signals. Concise - 21 juin 2007. By Garry Garrett, IntelliServ. I enjoyed the clarity, simplicity and lack of vocab words. This is the first clear explanation of IQ I have seen. RF engineering need not be black magic. Perfect explaination with practical application - 27 avr. This is very good explaination of pratical concern.
why it is used. no jorgan in understanding this. Extremely good explanation. Very clear, useful and helpful - 3 avr. By Evean, University of Toronto. It just saved my day. very simple and intuitive. Very clear explanation. Trig identity omitted - 18 janv. Minor quibble In Figure 9, you omitted the trig identity referred to as line 1 in the text, i.
cos alpha beta cos alpha cos beta - sin alpha sin beta. Also, you didn t number the lines referred to in the text as lines 2 and 3. But very enlightening all the same. It took me 30 minutes only to understand IQ. And before that I wasted one complete week. Clear, Consise, perfect summary - 7 déc. Pictures graphs always help better your understanding. I am a novice on RF principles. This tutorial on I Q mod demod is as good as one can make for a beginner.
Finally any excellent and simple description of what I Q data is. Favoris Partage. Ce site utilise des cookies pour améliorer votre expérience de navigation. For the first time, i finally understood what I Q means. En savoir plus sur notre déclaration de confidentialité et notre politique en matière de cookies. Getty Images. Hepatitis Do You Know Your ABCs. Reviewed by Nayana Ambardekar, MD on October 21, 2018. National Institutes of Health вЂњHepatitis,вЂќ вЂњHepatitis A.
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Anatomy See and Learn About the Liver. Do You Have Liver Lesions. Hepatitis Other Adult Vaccines See What Your Liver Looks Like Why Be Tested for Hep C. How Not to Wreck Your Liver What Is Fatty Liver Disease. Pump and Closed-Loop Updates from Fall 2018. What s Next From Tandem. By Jeemin Kwon, Emma Ryan, and Adam Brown.
Control-IQ hybrid closed loop coming in summer 2019; paired app coming soon to the US; plans for the t sport patch pump; and t slim X2 pump launched outside the US. Read below to see new announcements at Tandem s recent investor meeting. Last spring, we rounded up the most notable pipeline timing updates from Tandem, featuring Basal-IQ, Control-IQ, and news about the t slim X2 pump. Based on readings from the Dexcom G6 continuous glucose monitor CGMControl-IQ is an algorithm built into the t slim X2 pump that automatically adjusts basal insulin; the system is also built to automatically deliver correction boluses to bring down very high blood sugars.
This sort of automated insulin delivery decreases lows, improves time-in-range, and reduces some of the hassle of manually managing diabetes especially overnight. The pivotal trial study that Tandem will submit to the FDA for approval started this summer and has completed enrollment. Control-IQ Hybrid Closed Loop is Still Set for a Summer 2019 Launch. If all goes well, Tandem expects Control-IQ to be available in summer 2019.
Notably, as long as current t slim X2 pump users have the G6, the update will only require installing the new software at home no new pump needed. t slim X2 as an Interoperable Integrated iPump. Before Control-IQ comes out, Tandem plans to submit the t slim X2 as an interoperable integrated pump iPump to the US FDA. This means working with the FDA to create a new regulatory path for pumps, which has a major focus on interoperability i.allowing the pump to seamlessly talk to other diabetes devices with Bluetooth.
The planned iPump indication should enable Tandem to make changes and improvements to the pump without needing a lengthy FDA process, and it should also enable quick integration of new improved CGMs. Ultimately, this should allow updates and innovation to reach users faster, as Dexcom and Tandem proved earlier this year with the integrated interoperable G6 iCGM because of the iCGM pathway, G6 was integrated into Tandem s Basal-IQ system about a year faster than under the previous framework.
t slim X2 Mobile App t connect. Update Beta launch expected by end of 2018; expanded launch early 2019. This mobile display smartphone app will connect to the t slim X2 pump via Bluetooth, allowing users to view pump status and alerts on their own phone without having to pull out the pump. The app will also enable remote monitoring by caregivers and wireless, automatic upload of pump data to t connect, Tandem s web-based data application.
Based on the pictures, it seems like an Apple iPhone version will be launched first. The app won t allow users to control the pump from their phone initially, but this is a strong possibility in future updates Tandem certainly wants to move in this direction and the FDA seems willing to make it happen, provided the right safety precautions are in place. Other potential future features include integration with diet, sleep, and exercise information, insulin dosing advice, and smartwatch integration.
t sport Insulin Patch Pump with Hybrid Wear. Update Launch second half of 2020. Tandem has had the t sport patch pump in development for several years, taking its current pump technology, miniaturizing it, and changing the approach to wear. The pump will have no screenwireless control from a phone handheld, and a variety of infusion set options. Users will be able to wear the t sport pump like a patch directly on the body under clothes very short infusion set or in a pocket like a traditional tubed pump longer infusion set.
t sport will be about half the size of the current t slim X2, is expected to hold 200 units of insulin, and will include an on-pump bolus button e.a bolus can be taken even if the handheld is out of range. t sport will integrate the Control-IQ hybrid closed loop algorithm discussed above and receive data from Dexcom CGM, allowing for a truly on-body closed-loop system i.users will remain in automated insulin delivery even when the phone handheld is out of range.
Tandem hopes to launch the pump in 2020. The t sport next to the current t slim X2. Available Now Basal-IQ Predictive Low Glucose Suspend PLGS System with Dexcom G6. The Basal-IQ PLGS System uses glucose trend information from the G6 CGM to predict and hopefully prevent low blood sugar hypoglycemia. When a potential low is detected, the PLGS algorithm stops basal insulin delivery until blood sugar levels start to come back up; then, Basal-IQ resumes basal insulin delivery.
All of this happens without any alarms, and it only adds one additional screen onto the pump. See this article for more details on how the algorithm works, the time-in-range benefits, and how to start using Basal-IQ. t slim X2 Pump Launched Outside the US. Update Launched in Canada, Italy, Scandinavia, Spain, the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
The next targets for t slim X2 launch are France, Germany, and the Netherlands, though no specific timing has been given. For now, the t slim X2 only integrates with the Dexcom G5 CGM, meaning data from the G5 transmitter is sent to the pump screen. Outside the US, launch of the Basal-IQ PLGS system with Dexcom s G6 is expected to start in early 2019. Iq option paganos steaks hoagies. Opzioni binarie promozioni auto citroen nemo.
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Author Sandra Caballero, Project Specialist, Autonomous and Urban Mobility, World Economic Forum Mouchka Heller, Project Manager, Seamless Integrated Mobility System, World Economic Forum. A new initiative backed by a major healthcare employer and the World Economic Forum is investigating ways of providing these workers with a viable, reliable commute as a key part of creating a better response to the pandemic.
Thousands of essential healthcare workers cross the border between Canada and the U. Lessons from this initiative are applicable broadly to employers who need lower-waged and essential workers to be able to safely return to work. hospitals and help fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Every day, thousands of essential healthcare workers cross the border between Canada and the United States to work in U.
During these difficult times, Cross-border commuters often face specific challenges, such as disrupted or absent public transport networks, as well as the risk of border closures and tighter controls. But their struggle also holds broader lessons for how we can improve the daily journeys of all commuters, especially in lower-paid professions. What is the World Economic Forum doing about mobility.
This is why WeAllMove, a mobility service match-making platform, launched April 2020 by Wunder Mobility in partnership with the World Economic Forum COVID Action Platform. The platform highlights the importance of leveraging multi-stakeholder collaboration across governments, providers, commuters and more. Mobility systems must be resilient, safe, inclusive, responsive, and sustainable. WeAllMove consolidates information about a variety of mobility options available in any city, from mode share, to ride share and transit.
The independent platform, co-hosted by mobility providers operating globally, will integrate private, public and joint mobility services into a single search and output engine, ensuring a better new mobility normal can be forged, regardless of the crisis ahead.
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